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Bosnia & Herzegovina
A Multi-Layered Issue
Pollution is the result of several geographic patterns distinct to Bosnia
And the most impacted city is the capital, Sarajevo
• Physical
geography- site,
topography and
• Industrial
economy- former
military industrial
capital of Yugoslavia
• Effects of Bosnian
War in 1990the fragmentation of
both physical and
political infrastructure
Industry In Bosnia
Former Military Capital of Yugoslavia
• Economic Reliance on Industry
– 25% of GDP
– 32.6% of Labor Force
– Bosnian exports consist of 30% of
their GPD. (U.S. 10%)
• Top Industries
– Steel, Coal and Iron
Air Pollution
• Industrial causes, decreasing with current
low output
– Sulfur dioxide & carbon dioxide emissions
• Lack of government influence on
environmental regulation & preservation
• Transportation
– High density and population growth result in
heavy traffic
– Relatively old cars combined with unregulated
• Reliance on low-quality coal energy
– Limited fuel supply
– Use of ‘primitive’ heating methods like
firewood and heating oil
– 2011-2012:*Extremely cold winter plus shortage in
Russian fuel supply resulted in excessive burning of
oil and wood severely diminishing air quality
– What will climate change bring?
Health hazards
– Chronic bronchitis
– Pulmonary disease
– Lung cancer
Sarajevo : January 19th 2011,
Tuzla Coal Mines
Bosnian War: 1990s
Bosnia declares independence in 1992
– Ethnic make up of Bosnia in 92’: 43%
Muslim, 31% Orthodox, 17% Catholic
Washington Agreement signed between
Bosnians and Croatians in 1994
Srebenica massacre July 1995
– 8,000 people killed in one day.
Dayton Agreement signed in December 1995
Attack on Sarajevo was longest siege on a
capital city in modern history
April 1992-Feburary 1996
Siege on Sarajevo
Legacy of the Siege on Sarajevo
‘Urbicide’ –targeted destruction of hospitals
as well as government, media and military
centers, etc.
Fragmentation of physical
Destruction of transportation systems
-Roads, rail lines, bridges
Destruction of industrial capital
-Electric & telephone lines
-Economic halt
-Little to no output
Lack of adequate housing & sanitation
Fragmentation of
cultural infrastructure
Fractured government
-Lack of central authority and
inadequate policy
City-wide psychological damage
-High suicide & abortion rates
Demographic crisis
-Low birth rates, high death rates
-High number of out migration
-Refugees & IDPs
water, air, & soil pollution
Military Waste: Deadly Pollution
Includes both unexploded
weapons (mine fields)
-Nearly 3.68% of
country is still minecontaminated
-1,520 deaths from
unexploded mines have
occurred since the war
And exploded waste (shrapnel,
shells, etc)
-Problematic shrapnel
embedded in trees
*Deforestation &
economic concerns
Rebuilding Sarajevo
Sarajevo 2002
Sarajevo 2012
Bosnia & Herzegovina’s Future
Relating to Pollution
• With Croatia’s recent acceptance into the EU, and Bosnia’s economy
heavily focused on exports, Croatia has required Bosnia’s health codes
improve or else trade between the countries could end.
• Milk one of the main Bosnian products that Croatia is concerned about,
and although they have a year to improve the conditions it may not be
enough time.
• Croatia is extremely interested in joining the EU but if they continue to
accept poor quality products their acceptance could be revoked, or they
could simply discontinue their trade with Bosnia.
• While the health of Bosnian citizens has been negatively affected by air
pollution, military pollution and more, the fact that a major part of their
economy could be lost is just another reason to improve the quality of
their products.
Final Thoughts
• Years after the war Bosnia is still in the process
of rebuilding its infrastructure, culture and
• Environmental degradation is at the forefront
of the country’s concerns, as it is a multifaceted issue
Impending climate change
Geographic site and situation
Lasting effects of the war
Industrial and economic health
Governmental authority and strength
• goslav_Wars ?v=1&t=h1x1cd9s&s=8328a5b79b56e04e4d715ef8f535bb434408

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