Flow battery Technology - John Ward REDT - MNG

Report
REDT Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB)
‘Firming Up’ Wind Energy & The DECC Gigha Project in
Scotland
Meitheal Na Gaoithe Conference, Kilkenny
John Ward, REDT Energy Ltd. Dublin.
Agenda
• Background to the Technology Development
• VRFB – What is it ?
• Review of VRFB technology - performance at stack level and scale
up to grid systems
• Applications in Brief & Progress to date
• Demonstration Project – Gigha
• Conclusion
VRFB – What is it ?
Key features for reliability:
• Power and energy independent
Scalable from 5kW to 10MW, with
3 to18 hours discharge duration
•
Deep discharge capability
Capable of 10,000 cycle life with
minimal degradation >20 year life
Partial cycles have no effect on system life
•
Safe operation
Ambient temperature, nonflammable, environmentally sound
– zero emissions.
Vanadium – What is it ?
The 23rd element in the periodic table
Electron shells
Vanadium is a silverish transition metal (the valence
electrons exist in more than one shell). In normal
states, vanadium atoms have 23 protons, 23 electrons,
and 28 neutrons. Very High Columbic Efficiency -98%
23 P 28 N
VRFB 5kW Stack – Building block
All polymer materials, high
integrity sealed system
Low impedance
membrane electrode
structure
Charge/discharge ratio 1:1
5kWe nominal,
8.5kWe peak (15 mins)
Future target of 15kW
Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Benefits
Low LCOE >20 year life
– Lowest cost over life in class
– Modular from 5kW to 5MW to
match loads, scale duration
from hours to days
– Stack life > 10,000 cycles,
electrolyte indefinite life, reusable & recyclable
• Performance
– Deep discharge cycles, uses
100% of available capacity
– Charge retention, almost
indefinite in standby mode
– 75-85% round trip efficiency
– Partial cycles have 0 effect

Battery Life Cycle based on Depth of
Discharge
12,000
VRFB
10,000
8,000
Lithium
6,000
Deep Cycle
Lead Acid
4,000
2,000
0
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
GEL Lead
Acid
Timeline of development
Low cost manufactured
product launch phase
Demonstration phase
R&D phase
2013:
Large stack
1.2MWh
order
2000:
REDT
Started
2013:
60kWh
2012:
system in Portugal
Technology
proven
2003-08:
Small 5kW
stack
developed
2014:
7 units 15-180
2014:
Low cost
10 demo unit
outsourced
facility launch
manufacturing
Tested quality
JABIL
process
production
R&D cost down
plan
2015-17:
Volume production
Automation
Large volume
R&D cost down
Original 30kWh VRFB pilot system – 2011
Containerised modular VRFB system designs standardised for volume production
5-30
10-30
15-180
30-180
45-180
60-180
5-60
10-60
ISO Standard 20’ container section – 60kW x 180kWh
• 12 x 5kW rated stacks per battery
• Insulated air flow thermal control system
• Argon blanketed electrolyte
• Safety – leakage, fire, hydrogen detection
• 96,000 Litres of electrolyte per container
• Excess electrolyte enables deep discharge
The Isle of Gigha and the Application
•
•
•
•
•
•
Community owned Wind
Population ~150
Tourism, Farming, Brewing
Renewables potential
Sub-sea cable
One of the longest 11 kV feeders to
mainland
• Remote and wild
Regional Context – The Western Isles
• Argyll generation severely constrained
• SSE cable upgrades scheduled for 2015
• Test site for VRFB selected by CES
The Isle of Gigha and the Application
Current position:
•
•
•
•
New (4th) wind turbine installed exceeds T&D limits
330 kW constrained to 225 kW at 0.85 p.f.
Line capacity upgrades not yet available
Lose 3 GWh over asset life
Primary objective:
• Constrained energy recovery with onpeak dispatch
• Enhanced FIT benefit
• Opportunity to increase RE generation by
30%
VRFB Applications – Grid balancing services
Typical Energy Storage application for grid peak shaving with baseload power
Parker SSD EGT Control System
Parker SSD PCS working with the REDT VRFB has a system response time of less
than 5m/s and can therefore perform multiple intra-cycle control functions.
Electronics and cable inductance are limiting factors not the energy storage system
itself.
Firm Frequency Response (FFR) Profile
Gigha 105kW rated system - RoCoF
Short term operational reserve (STOR) Profile
Arbitrage Profile
Constrained Energy Profile – Typical day
Gigha system 105kW x 1.26MWh
Blue = ESS kW, Charging when negative
Red = Stored energy MWh start/finish @ zero SOC
System Services Summary
Frequency Control
Voltage Control
Regulation of Curtailment
Arbitrage
Improvement of output prediction
Post demonstration stage the technology will be rolled out
to other islands
Conclusions
• Energy storage is entering the mainstream
• The Technology is constantly evolving and becoming cheaper
– full suite of services and dispatch for c.5 euro/Mwh
• REDT will be ready for large scale deployment supporting
wind energy & Solar in Q3 2015
• Within 5 years there will be large scale deployment of
distributed storage worldwide
• Market for storage globally is $10Bn by 2017(19), 33% of this
is estimated to be flow batteries
• Possibility of an entirely renewable power system…?
Thank you for your attention – Questions ?
www.redtenergy.com

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