Vertical Circulation

Vertical Circulation
Team 1
Team Members
Marie Baretsky
Robert Davis
David Encarnacion
Hadiza Djibring
•1854- Elisha Otis demonstrates his safety brake at the
Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations at the Crystal
Palace in NY. Elevator ropes at the time were generally
made out of fiber and if the rope broke there was
nothing to stop it. The introduction of a safety brake
helped alleviate the publics fear of falling.
•1857- The first public elevator is installed at the E.V.
Haughwout & Co. store in NY. It serviced five floors and
traveled at an average rate of 40 feet per min.
•1889- The first electric elevator is installed at the Demarest
Building in NYC replacing the steam engine with an electric
•1894- The Otis Elevator Co. installs the first automatic
push-button elevator.
•1892- Early predecessors to the escalator are invented and
patented. Jesse Reno’s “Endless conveyor or Elevator”
and George Wheeler’s “inclined elevator”
•1900- Otis Elevator Co. trademarks the term “escalator”.
1900 Paris Exposition uses movable ramps and
walkways to aid in circulation.
•1902- Flatiron building is built with elevators servicing 21 floors.
•1913- Woolworth building rises 57 stories.
•1920’s- Ward-Leonard system of electric motor speed and control
allows for smooth transitioning between accelerating and
(Strakosch and Caporale 30)
Hydraulic Elevators
Hydraulic Elevators:
• Pumps provide oil pressure for lift. An
electric motor pumps the oil into a
cylinder to move the piston
• They are used in low rise buildings up
to 50 feet high or 5 stories maximum.
• Speeds vary from 25 to 150 fpm (Feet
Per Minute)
Hydraulic Elevator Types
• In-Ground: This type has a cylinder that extends into the ground
the same height to which the elevator is to be lifted.
• Hole-Less: This type uses telescoping pistons on one or both sides
of the cab to lift it. The cylinder stands within the hoist way and does
not require a drilled hole. This class is typically limited to under 40’ of travel.
• Roped: This type is similar to a traction type elevator. The cab is elevated
by an attached rope that is pulled by pistons.
No wires, cables, or overhead machinery is required for the In-Ground
and Hole-less types. A machine room is required to house both the oil
storage tank and the pump. The slow speeds of hydraulic elevators makes
the ideal for freight elevators up to 50 tons.
Hydraulic Elevator Types
How Hydraulics Work
The cylinder is connected to a fluid-pumping system.
The hydraulic system has three parts:
• A tank (the fluid reservoir)
• A pump, powered by an electric motor
• A valve between the cylinder and the reservoir
The pump forces fluid from the tank into a pipe leading to the cylinder.
When the valve is opened, the pressurized fluid will take the path of least
resistance and return to the fluid reservoir. But when the valve is closed,
the pressurized fluid has nowhere to go except into the cylinder.
As the fluid collects in the cylinder, it pushes the piston up, lifting the car.
Working Diagram
Machine Room Sizes
Hydraulic elevators come in a wide variety of
speeds, capacities and travel heights. These options determine the
size and horsepower of the power unit, which in turn determines the
size of the machine room. The most desirable machine room location
is on the lowest door served, adjacent to the elevator hoist-way.
If necessary, it may be located remotely from the hoist-way.
Safety Systems
All elevator systems should be equipped with a complete safety system.
Some of the safety systems that most elevators currently on the market utilize are:
• built in braking systems
• a governor (speed monitoring device)
• electromagnetic brakes
• and a shock absorber system
These subsystems are easier to install in roped elevator systems.
Another safety feature in most elevators is a sensor on the door that
ensures that nothing is caught in the doorway when the doors are closing.
When motion or the presence of an object is sensed the doors go to an
open position for a specified number of seconds. Then the doors again try to close.
Pros and Cons
The main advantage of hydraulic systems is they can easily multiply the relatively weak force of the
pump to generate the stronger force needed to lift the elevator car.
But these systems suffer from two major disadvantages. The main problem is the size of the
equipment. In order for the elevator car to be able to reach higher floors, you have to make the
piston longer. The cylinder has to be a little bit longer than the piston, of course, since the piston
needs to be able to collapse all the way when the car is at the bottom floor. In short, more stories
means a longer cylinder.
The problem is that the entire cylinder structure must be buried below the bottom elevator stop. This
means you have to dig deeper as you build higher. This is an expensive project with buildings over a
few stories tall. To install a hydraulic elevator in a 10-story building, for example, you would need to
dig at least nine stories deep!
The other disadvantage of hydraulic elevators is that they’re fairly inefficient. It takes a lot
of energy to raise an elevator car several stories, and in a standard hydraulic elevator, there is no way
to store this energy. The energy of position (potential energy) only works to push the fluid back into
the reservoir. To raise the elevator car again, the hydraulic system has to generate the energy all over
Traction Elevators (Pull
 The Most Common type of Elevators.
 Cars pulled up by means of rolling steel ropes over a deeply
grooved pulley, commonly called a sheave.
 The weight of car balanced by a counter weight.
 Sometimes cars built in pairs and synchronized to move in opposite
directions, and serve as each other’s counterweigh.
 Traction elevators use steel cords or flat steel ropes a lot of traction
elevators prefer the use of flat steel ropes because they are
extremely light due to its carbon fiber core and a high-friction
coating, and does not require any oil or lubricant. Because of these
qualities, elevator energy consumption in high-rise buildings can be
cut significantly.
Hadiza D.
Different types of Elevators
Hydraulic Elevators.
Traction Elevators.
Climbing Elevators.
Pneumatic Elevators.
Different types of
Traction Elevators
1. Geared Elevators.
2. Gear-Less Elevators.
3. Machine-Room-Less Elevator.
Hadiza D.
Geared Traction Elevator.
 The Gear Box Is attached to the
Motor, to drive the wheel and pull
the rope.
 These elevators typically operate at
speeds from 38 to 152 meters (125500 ft) per minute and carry loads
of up to 13,600 kilograms (30,000
 Machines Driven by AC or DC
electric motors hoists.
 Geared machines use worm gears
to control mechanical movement of
elevator cars by "rolling" steel hoist
ropes over a drive sheave which is
attached to a gearbox driven by a
high speed motor.
 An electrically controlled brake
between the motor and the
reduction unit stops the elevator,
holding the car at the desired floor
Hadiza D.
Geared Traction Elevator
The Governor
The governor is a device actuated by the centrifugal force of whirling
weights opposed by gravity. It is used in elevators as a standard safety
measure to set an emergency mechanical brake that brings the car to a
stop when the car exceeds a safe speed. A set of redundant safety
features (both mechanical and electrical) are used in the elevator
industry to ensure that cars do not run away. These safety measures
depend on local and national codes and vary from country to country
and even state to state. The interested reader is invited to read [1]
should he/she be interested in learning more about them.
Compensating Ropes
Compensating ropes are used to compensate for the change in
hoisting rope weight that occurs as a function of the position of the car
in long hoist ways. Basically, the use of compensating ropes insures
that, for a given load, the motor sees the same inertia at all stops in
the hoist way.
Double/Single Wrapping
The use of double wrapping provides substantially increased hoist rope
traction surface area and is desirable in elevators with heavy loads.
Hoist traction occurs between the hoisting ropes and grooves that are
cast in the drive sheave. Figure 4 presents a cross section of two drive
sheaves and represents the two most prevalent groove types used in
the industry. As a rule of thumb the single wrap machines use the "V"
groove and the double wrap machines use the "U" groove.
Hadiza D.
Gearless Traction Elevator.
 There is a wheel attached to the
 These elevators typically operate at
speeds greater than 500 feet per
 A brake is mounted between the
motor and drive sheave (or
gearbox) to hold the elevator
stationary at a floor.
Hadiza D.
Gearless Overhead.
1.1 Gearless traction elevators
are typically used in high speed
applications for tall hoist ways.
This gearless hoist machine
consists of the traction sheave,
brake drum and motor armature
or rotor all mounted on a common
shaft supported by two roller
bearings. The gearless motor can
be either A-C or D-C. They can be
single or double wrapped as
shown in Figure 1.
Hadiza D.
Gearless Overhead.
2.1 Gearless traction elevators are also used in
high speed applications for tall hoistways
however they are typically used for shorter
hoistways and lower speeds than their 1:1
cousins. Like the 1:1 machine the 2:1 gearless
elevator consists of a traction sheave, brake
drum and motor armature or rotor all mounted
on a common shaft supported by two roller
bearings. The main difference is the roping
configuration which allows for a motor rotational
speed that is double that employed in the 1:1
machine for the same car speed (and hence the
use of smaller motor frames for the same
horsepower). The gearless motor can be either
A-C or D-C. They can be single or double
wrapped as shown in Figure 2.
Machine-Room-Less Elevators:
 They are typically traction elevators that do not have a
dedicated machine room above the elevator shaft.
 The machine sits in the override space and the controls
sit above the ceiling adjacent to the elevator shaft.
 Designed for buildings between about two and 30
stories, this system employs a smaller sheave than
conventional geared and gearless elevators.
 The reduced sheave size, together with a redesigned
machine, allows the machine to be mounted within
the hoistway itself—eliminating the need for a bulky
machine room on the roof.
The true MRL gearless traction model
has been made possible by two main
factors: the compact controller
innovation and the inspection/test
panel. In these true MRL models,
compact controllers fit inside the wall
of the top elevator landing, and most
necessary test and maintenance
features can be concealed behind a
panel in the elevator entrance to give
building personnel, elevator
mechanics, and city or state
inspectors access to the critical items
they need.
Hadiza D.
Traction Elevators Disadvantages:
 Installation costs can be 15-25% higher than the hydraulic elevators.
Traction elevators might be initially offered at a low and convenient
price and then skyrocketed with outrages service charges.
 Maintenance is difficult because the machine is located in the
headroom of the shaft and reaching it can be a challenge. Serious
accidents during construction and servicing of the elevator are highly
probable. If the car is stuck, the machine cannot be serviced from the
top of the car, and insecure methods may then be needed.
 Traction elevators are initially offered at reasonable prices and the
low income is later attained through frequent servicing and highpriced spare parts. Obtaining the spare parts can be a nightmare
since servicing may only be performed by the original installer or by
their service partners.
Traction Elevators advantages:
 It uses less energy than hydraulic elevators because the motor is only
used to overcome friction - there is no lifting involved because of the
counterweight system. The only time the motor is used in traction
elevators to lift the cab is when the counterweight is not even with the
cab weight.
 The most inefficient of these elevators are older models that use directcurrent electricity - used because it is easy to control speed with DC current.
 Most of the energy used by these elevators happens when it is idle from the
heating, cooling and lighting systems. Using LED lighting and timers for fans
will help reduce the energy use.
 To put the energy use in relative terms, the energy used in light sensor
stairways exceeds that of the energy used for a traction elevator ride.
 Disregard of Safety Requirements: Rescue of passengers during an
emergency situation can be challenging, because the traction
elevators require special knowledge and the machine is difficult to
reach in the shaft. Temperature and humidity conditions inside the
shaft may be tragic and can easily affect the electronic components
which might cause more frequent break-downs and servicing. A
short circuit to the motor or fire can result in entrapped passengers
in the elevator. The fire itself might not be deadly but rather the
smoke within the shaft.
Hadiza D.
Escalator are a type transportation device that moves people from one level to
another without human physical movement. It’s a moving staircase with steps that
move up or down different levels, that use a conveyor belt and track which keep the
step horizontal for the pedestrians. Thus the escalator began as an amusement and
not as a transportation system that is being use today. The first patent relating to an
escalator-like machine was granted in 1859 to a Massachusetts man for a steam
driven unit. On March 15 1892, Jesse Reno patented his moving stairs or inclined
elevator as he called it.
1900’s – Present
1900’s Escalator, few
difference, yet still the same
concept of transportation.
Otis Elevator Company
produced the first
commercial escalator in
Escalator of present day. This
is a picture taken from
Broadway Junction. Since the
invention of escalator, it has
not change. But the rise and
run of it has change over
time to accommodate
different level of floor height
due to technology.
Design & Specifications
Balustrades in "solid" usually #4 or #8 stainless steel
and bronze or glass with thickness either 3/8" or
Speed. 100 ft per minute, which is the maximum
Step widths in 24-in, 32-in and 40-in.
Microprocessor based controller.
Maximum travel distance varies with manufacturer.
Painted steps in silver and black
High-impact step inserts in yellow and black
Floor Plate in aluminum and stainless steel
Safety features. (See Safety Features sidebar below.)
24 inch wide escalators accommodate a single person without
room for any extra items or people. These are generally used
in low traffic areas or where space is tight.
32 inch wide escalators accommodate a single person and a
suitcase or package. These are used at moderate traffic areas.
40 inch wide escalators accommodate two people side-by-side
and allow a person to pass a stationary person. These are
recommended for high traffic applications.
Spiral Escalators
In 1985 Mitsubishi Electric installed the world's
first practical spiral escalator in Osaka, Japan.
Since then they have installed a number of spiral
escalators in public complexes throughout
Japan, Asia, and in the United States. Spiral
escalators are space-efficient, offering
commercial developers new options in public
space design, be it for shopping malls, hotels, or
business offices. They increase the amount of
usable floor space and add to a building's
reputation and value.
Corner Plan
Opening Plan
Specification Chart
24 in
One passenger
32 in
One passenger
+ one package
or one piece of
40 in
Two passengers
- one
may walk past
Two passengers
- one
may walk past
Two passengers
- one
may walk past
Mainstay of metro
systems, larger
airports, train
stations, some
retail usage
in Horsepower
5 HP
10 HP
15 HP
Building Code- Chapter 30
•3002.2 Number of elevators in a hoistway.
Where four or more elevator cars serve all or the same portion
of a building, the elevators shall be located in no fewer that two
separate hoistways. Not more that four elevator cars shall be
located in a single hoistway.
•3002.4 Elevator car to accommodate ambulance stretcher
Where elevators are provided in buildings four or more stories
above grade plane or four or more stories below grade plane, at
least one elevator shall be provided for fire department
emergency access to all floors. The elevator shall be of such a
size to accommodate a 24-inch by 84-inch ambulance stretcher
in the horizontal, open position and shall be identified by the
international symbol for emergency medical services (star of
life). The symbol shall not be less that 3 inches high. And placed
on both sides of the hoistway door frame
•3002.7 Common enclosure with stair way
Elevators shall not be in a common shaft
enclosure with a stair way.
•3003.3.2 Number of elevators
A number of elevators shall be kept available at
every floor for the sole use of the Fire
Department. This requirement shall apply to the
following types of buildings:
1. High-rise buildings with occupancies
classified in Groups A, B, E, I, F, H, M and S
2. Buildings with Group B occupancies with a
gross area of 200,000 square feet
3. Buildings with a main use or dominant
occupancy in Group R-1 or R-2
•3003.3.2.1 Three or fewer elevators
Where a floor is serviced by three or fewer
elevators, every car shall be kept available for
sole use by the Fire Department
•3003.3.2.2 More than three elevators
Where a floor is serviced by more that three
elevator cars, at least three elevator cars with a
total rated load capacity of not less that
6,000lbs shall be kept available for the sole use
of the Fire Department. If the total load
capacity of all cars servicing the floor is less that
6,000lbs, all such cars shall be kept available for
sole use of the Fire Department
ADA Standards Chapter 4 section 407
Table 407.4.1 Elevator Car Dimensions (text version)
Minimum Dimensions
Door Location
Inside Car,
Inside Car,
Door Clear Inside Car, Side
Back Wall to
Back Wall to
to Side
Inside Face of
Front Return
42 inches
(1065 mm)
80 inches
(2030 mm)
51 inches
(1295 mm)
54 inches
(1370 mm)
36 inches
(915 mm)1
68 inches
(1725 mm)
51 inches
(1295 mm)
54 inches
(1370 mm)
36 inches
(915 mm)1
54 inches
(1370 mm)
80 inches
(2030 mm)
80 inches
(2030 mm)
36 inches
(915 mm)1
60 inches
(1525 mm)2
60 inches
(1525 mm)2
60 inches
(1525 mm)2
1. A tolerance of minus 5/8 inch (16 mm) is permitted.
2. Other car configurations that provide a turning space complying with 304
with the door closed shall be permitted.
What to Consider
Pedestrian traffic:
What is your peak travel time?
How many people do you need to service?
What is an acceptable travel time?
Occupying a minimum footprint in the
•6,000lb capacity with 60 in center opening
•Accommodate 25-40% of building occupancy
for classrooms and 20% for laboratories
during a 5 min period.
•Interval time between 40-50 sec
(Strakosch and Caporale 324)
Probable stopsHow often the elevator is likely to make based
on number of floors and number of
Running TimeHow long it takes the elevator to travel from
floor to floor including stopping and starting
based on floor height and elevator speed
(Strakosch and Caporale 74)
(Strakosch and Caporale 78)
Transfer TimesHow long it takes to load and unload the
(Strakosch and Caporale 75)
Door Operating TimeHow long it takes the elevator doors to open
and close.
(Strakosch and Caporale 76)
Example Calculation
7 story building
Typ. floor height is 12ft
500 fpm elevator
22 passengers up
22 passengers down
Building Occupancy 1,500 people
60in center opening doors
Required: Accommodate 20% of building
occupancy during 5 min peak rush
Interval (waiting time) between 40-50 sec
Calculate: Total time for an elevator trip
Waiting time
Number of elevators needed
Total Time= Time up + Time down + Standing time
Time Up= (Running time per floor) X (Number of stops)
Calculating Running time/ floor
= 4.4 sec/floor
(Strakosch and Caporale 74)
(Strakosch and Caporale 78)
Standing time= Lobby time + Transfer time + Door operation time
Lobby time=
18 sec for 20 people + 1.6 sec for 2 additional
Transfer time=
3 sec for 2 passengers + 1 sec every additional
3+1= 4 sec/stop x 6 stops= 24 sec total time
(Strakosch and Caporale 75)
Door operation time for 60 in center open door=
6.5 sec/stop x 6 stops= 39 sec
19.6 sec lobby + 24 sec transfer +39 sec door = 82.6 sec
Add 10% for inefficiency= 82.6 x 1.10= 90.86 sec
(Strakosch and Caporale 76)
For our calculations let’s assume running time and standing time up is equal to running and standing
time down
Running Time Up=
Standing Time Up=
Running Time Down=
Standing Time Down=
Total round trip time=
26.4 sec
90.86 sec
26.4 sec
+ 90.86 sec
234.5 sec
Five min capacity=
5min x 60 sec/min= 300 sec
Passengers up=
Passengers down=
Total # of passengers=
+ 22
We need to accommodate 20% of the building
1,500 people x 0.2= 300 people
1 Elevator= 44 people/234.5 sec
300/56= 5.3 = 6 elevators needed
234.5 sec/6 elevators= 39 sec Interval
Strakosch, George R., and Robert Caporale, ed. The Vertical Transportation Handbook. New Jersey: John
Wiley & Sons Inc., 2010
Hydraulic Elevators
Building Systems: Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, Fire Safety & Communication Systems, Lighting &
Wendell C. Edwards, Chapter 11, pg. 260-261 (System requirements) (In ground) (BP Elevator Co.) for cover page) (Fox Elevators) (Section of cylinder) (How
hydraulic cylinders work) (Working Hydraulic Elevator Diagram) (how hydraulics work) (Safety) (Pros and Cons)
Team 1
Traction Elevators
Escalators (Then select first link to download which is a {.PDF} )
Team 1

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