Seeger – Presentation (animated)

Report
TEACHING THROUGH FILM:
CASE STUDIES AND STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE LEARNING
FLAME Research Centre,
Manchester Metropolitan University
26 July 2014
Film as (quasi-)authentic linguistic and cultural input –
challenges and chances in the secondary language classroom
Isabella Seeger
Bielefeld University
CONTENTS
1 Film as (quasi-)authentic input in the EFL classroom
1.1 Towards a definition of
"classroom authenticity"
2 Curricular input for lower secondary education
1.2 Some merits of using film
in the EFL classroom
3 A holistic approach to teaching with film
3.1 Focus
References
3.2 Classroom methodology
3.3 Teacher's responsibilities
3.4 Assessment
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1 FILM AS (QUASI-)AUTHENTIC INPUT IN THE EFL CLASSROOM
1.1 Towards a definition of
"classroom authenticity"
Film - produced for the information or entertainment of an English-speaking audience
Authentic materials
"CLASSROOM AUTHENTICITY"
- Produced by and for native speakers
- Not produced for language teaching
- Characteristics of real-life discourse
(Nunan, 1989; Nuttall, 2005; Gilmore, 2007)
Nonfictional
content
Limited view of
authentic language
& culture
Fictional
content
Representation of
 Authentic input language & culture
 Quasi-authentic
input
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Learning situation
- Use of materials in meaningful context
- Authentic use of language
- Meaningful outcome
(Breen, 1985; Taylor, 1994; Mishan, 2005)
• C-R and discovery learning
• Genuinely communicative
activities
• Autonomous learning
 Authentic output
1 FILM AS (QUASI-)AUTHENTIC INPUT IN LANGUAGE LEARNING
1.2 Some merits of using film in
the EFL classroom
Film can widely supplement the input from coursebooks or teachers
"Films are such
valuable and rich
resources for
teaching for they
present colloquial
English in real-life
contexts rather
than artificial
situations; an
opportunity of
being exposed to
different native
speaker voices,
slang, reduced
speeches, stress,
accents, and
dialects."
(King, 2002: 2)
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Motivation,
engagement with L2
Correlation of speaking
and listening skills
(Sommer, 2001; King, 2002;
MacGregor, 2007)
(Kusumarasdyati, 2004;
Istanto, 2009)
Meaningful, contextrelated situations
(Lonergan, 1984; King, 2002)
Natural, real-life
discourse
(Katchen,2002;
Gilmore,2007)
Visual support
FILM
(Kusumarasdyati, 2004)
Language variation
(Sherman, 2003;
King, 2002)
2 CURRICULAR INPUT FOR LOWER SECONDARY EDUCATION
The German EFL curriculum endorses CEFR goals and suggestions regarding communicativeness and meaningfulness
Common European Framework
of Reference for Languages
(CEFR)
• Suggested possible input:
Different texts from all kinds
of media, including TV &
cinema films
Council of Europe (2001: 94)
Desired output:
Appropriate in context
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EFL curriculum for lower secondary
education
Inauthentic content
and language
• Prescribed input:
(Sheldon, 1988;
Mauranen, 2004;
Römer, 2004, 2006,
2007; Rühlemann, 2008)
Scripted materials
(coursebook & audio/video
materials, graded readers)
MSW (2014)
• Standardised assessment
Unfamiliar with
language variation
• Non-native speaker teachers
(Conrad, 2004)
Frequent output:
"Abiturspeak"
(Mukherjee, 2004: 247)
3 A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO TEACHING WITH FILM
3.1 Focus
Focusing on content and culture rather than on language
Primary focus: non-linguistic
features
• Supplement or contrast to
coursebook information
• Diverts attention from L2
• Meaningful language
production
"...the best input is
so interesting and
relevant that the
acquirer may even
‘forget’ that the
message is encoded in
a foreign language."
(Krashen, 2009: 66)
Secondary focus: language
! Crucial: lowered expectations
• Language variation
Learners:
• Action-related registers
• Comprehension of language &
content
(Gibbons, 2001)
• Discovery of social &
discourse functions
• Unconscious acquisition of
chunks
(Nunan, 1999; Krashen, 2009)
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Teacher:
• Language comprehension vs
language production
• Learners' ability to simplify
• Learners' enthusiasm about film
3 A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO TEACHING WITH FILM
Raising interest, reducing anxiety,
facilitating comprehension
3.2 Classroom methodology
Encouraging autonomous learning
and language production
Pre-viewing
• Introducing the topic
(film trailer, summary/speculation,
protagonists)
• Relieving language difficulty
(key vocabulary; optional: subtitles)
Younger or low-ability learners:
• Short films or extracts
• Simple guided discovery tasks
• Guided presentation
• Creating a cinematic atmosphere
Teenage or intermediate learners:
While-/after-viewing
• Drawing attention to culture & language
• Full-length films or extracts;
book extracts & film adaptations
• Research on background info
• Semi-autonomous research projects
• Focus on chosen aspects
• Semi-autonomous
presentation
For activities, see Stempleski & Tomalin, 2001;
Sherman, 2003, Thaler, 2014, etc.
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3 A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO TEACHING WITH FILM
3.3 Teacher's responsibilites
Learners' enjoyment = teacher's frustration?
No...
Teachers' shifting responsibilities
...grammatical accuracy & rule
adherence
Challenges:
...learning of isolated words
• Specific design/adaptation of teaching materials
...learning of correct spelling
• Acceptance of "untidy" language (input & output)
...language production moulded on
template phrases
• Difficulty of measuring unconscious language
acquisition
Rewards:
• Relief of responsibility as language expert & role
model
• Relaxation of constant classroom control
• Personal enrichment & motivation
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3 A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO TEACHING WITH FILM
3.4 Assessment
Assessing learners' engagement with content, culture and language
Case study:
• Coursebook units & film units
• Comparative long-term assessment
Possible foci in assessment :
• Film enhanced retention of content,
cultural aspects & vocabulary
Short- & long-term:
(Seeger, 2011)
"...it can often be the case
that these messy, layered
and overlapping types of
learning are not enhanced in
the orderly progression of
'covering the material' in the
test-based classroom."
(Costigan, 2008: 159)
• Comprehension of content
• Cultural knowledge
• Appropriate use of vocabulary in context
• Written/oral language production
• Ability to deal with related authentic materials
Long-term:
• Ability to relate knowledge from the film to
real-world situations
• Fluency and appropriateness in language use
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REFERENCES
Breen, M.P. (1985) 'Authenticity in the language classroom.' Applied Linguistics 6/1: 60-70
Conrad, S. (2004) 'Corpus linguistics, language variation, and language teaching.' In Sinclair, J. (ed.) How to Use Corpora in
Language Teaching. Amsterdam: Benjamins: 67-85
Costigan, A.T. (2008) Teaching Authentic Language Arts in a Test-Driven Era. Abingdon/New York: Routledge
Council of Europe (ed.) (2001) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: learning, teaching, assessment.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Gibbons, P. (2001) 'Learning a New Register in a Second Language.' In Candlin, C. N. and Mercer, N. (eds.) English Language
Teaching in its Social Context. Abingdon/New York: Routledge: 258-270
Gilmore, A. (2007) 'Authentic materials and authenticity in foreign language learning.' Language Teacher 40: 97-118
Istanto, J.W. (2009) 'The Use of Film as an Innovative Way to Enhance Language Learning and Cultural Understanding.' Electronic
Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 6, Suppl. 1: 278-290
Katchen, J.E. (2002) 'Video in ELT – Theoretical and Practical Foundations. Proceedings of the 2002 KATE International
Conference.' The Korea Association of Teachers of English: 256-259
King, J. (2002) 'Using DVD feature films in the classroom.' ELT Newsletter, Article 88/Feb 2002
Krashen, S. (2009) Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. (1st Internet ed.) Available at
http://www.sdkrashen.com/content/books/principles_and_practice.pdf (Accessed 13 July 2014)
Kusumarasdyati (2004) 'Listening, Viewing and Imagination: Movies in EFL Classes.' 2nd International Conference on Imagination
and Education, Vancouver, Canada, July 14-17, 2004. Clayton: Monash University
Lonergan, J. (1984) Video in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
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REFERENCES
MacGregor, L. (2007) 'Looking at cultural differences in movie trailers.' In Bradford-Watts, K. (ed.) JALT 2006 Conference
Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT
Mauranen, A. (2004) 'Spoken corpus for an ordinary learner.' In Sinclair, J. (ed.) How to Use Corpora in Language Teaching.
Amsterdam: Benjamins: 89-105
Mishan, F. (2005) Designing Authenticity into Language Learning Materials. Bristol: Intellect Books
MSW (Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen) (ed.) (2014) Zulasung von Lernmitteln in NRW
[Approved teaching materials for NRW; my translation]. Available at
http://www.schulministerium.nrw.de/docs/Schulsystem/Medien /Lernmittel/index.html (Accessed 14 July 2014)
Mukherjee, J. (2004) 'Bridging the Gap between Applied Corpus Linguistics and the Reality of English Language Teaching in
Germany.' In Connor, U. and Upton, T.A. (eds.) Applied Corpus Linguistics. A Multi-dimensional Perspective. Amsterdam:
Rodopi: 239-250
Nunan, D. (1989) Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Nunan, D. (1999) Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston: Heinle & Heinle
Römer, U. (2004) 'A corpus-driven approach to modal auxiliaries and their didactics.' In Sinclair, J. (ed.) How to Use Corpora in
Language Teaching. Amsterdam: Benjamins: 89-105
Römer, U. (2006) 'Pedagogical Applications of Corpora: Some Reflections on the Current Scope and a Wish List for Future
Developments.' Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 54/2: 121-134
Römer, U. (2007) 'Learner Language and the Norms in Native Corpora and EFL Teaching Materials: A Case Study of English
Conditionals.' In Volk-Birke, S. and Lippert, J. (eds.) Anglistentag 2006 Halle. Proceedings. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier:
355-363
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REFERENCES
Rühlemann, C. (2008) 'A Register Approach to Teaching Conversation: Farewell to Standard English?' Applied Linguistics 29/4: 672693
Seeger, I. (2011) Exploring film as EFL coursebook supplements and motivational stimulus: A German secondary school case study.
Master's dissertation. Birmingham: University of Birmingham. Available at http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/Documents/collegeartslaw/cels/essays/matefltesldissertations/ExploringfilmascoursebooksupplementsISeeger.pdf (Accessed 18 July 2014)
Sheldon, L.E. (1988) 'Evaluating ELT textbooks and materials.' ELT Journal 42/4: 237-246
Sherman, J. (2003) Using Authentic Video in the Language Classroom. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press
Sommer, P. (2001) 'Using film in the English classroom: Why and how.' Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 44/5: 485-487
Stempleski, S. and Tomalin, B. (2001) Film. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Taylor, D. (1994) 'Inauthentic Authenticity or Authentic Inauthenticity?' TESL-EJ 1/2: 1-12
Thaler, E. (2014) Teaching English with Films. Paderborn: Schöningh
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IMAGES THANKS TO
Film:
Cantet, Laurent (2008) Entre les murs [The Class]. France: Haut et court et al.
Chadha, Ghurinder (2002) Bend it like Beckham. UK: Kintop Pictures et al.
Daldry, Stephen (2000) Billy Elliot. UK: BBC Films et al.
Egoyan, Atom (1999) Felicia's Journey. UK: Alliance Atlantis Communications et al.
Hill, Tom (2006) Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties (aka Garfield 2). USA: Twentieth Century Fox et al.
Jennings, G. (2007) Son of Rambow. UK: Hammer & Tongs et al.
Kaye, Tony (1998) American History X. USA: New Line Cinema et al.
Van Sant, Gus (2007) Paranoid Park. USA: MK2 Productions et al.
Other:
Autonomous students: http://tesolatrennertnyc.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/students20talking20in20class.jpeg
Coathangers (1): http://cdn3.micasa.ch/medias/sys_master/large/d/f/4/3/id_9115088355358_large.jpg
Coathangers (2): http://www.dannielledishes.com/dannielle-dishes-1/?offset=1301670996000
Media signpost: http://bookpublicityservices.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Media.jpg
Speaking-Listening: http://jackson-consulting.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/listening.jpg
They'll figure it out: http://transitionculture.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/LaurelAndHardy-TheyThinkOfSomething.jpg
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THANK YOU
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