Applied Linguistics AL Lec. 1 How did the term come into existence? The term Applied Linguistics (AL) is an AngloAmerican coinage. In Britain, the establishment of the University of Edinburgh School of Applied Linguistics in 1956. In the United States, the establishment of the Center of Applied Linguistics in Washington D.C. in 1957. The beginnings AL use was propagated by those who clearly wanted to be known as scientists and not as humanists. AL in the past based itself mainly on the findings of theoretical linguistics especially in language teaching. General Linguistics & Applied Linguistics Unlike general linguistics, applied linguistics (AL) does not regard language as an isolated subject to be examined away from its social environment General Points By the time AL has been found to make use of many sciences in language teaching, like: linguistics, psychology, sociology, and education. What is applied linguistics Crystal (1985) AL is a branch of linguistics…where the primary concern is the application of linguistic theories, methods and findings to the elucidation of language problems which have arisen in other areas of experience. What is applied linguistics? Corder (1974) AL is the utilization of the knowledge about the nature of language achieved by linguistic research for the improvement of the efficiency of some practical task in which language is a central component. What is applied linguistics? Streven (1992) AL is a multidisciplinary approach to the solution of language-related problems. What is applied linguistics? Schmitt (2002) It is using what we know about (i) languag, (ii) how it is learned, & (iii) how it is used in order to achieve some purpose or solve some problem in the real world. What is applied linguistics? Kaplan (2002) Applied linguistics is a practice-driven discipline that addresses language-based problems in real world contexts However, Critics note that AL is both too fragmented & AL covers 2 main areas: 1. The study of second and foreign language learning and teaching. 2. The study of language and linguistics in relation to practical problems. Applied linguistics has always been concerned with… 2nd language acquisition theory (language learning, 2nd language pedagogy (language teaching), & the interference between the two. References Noor, H, & Alqadi, N. (2003). A Course in Applied Linguistics: for EFL/ ESL Arab Students. Almadinah Almonwarah: Dar Aliman (Chapter 1) Kaplan, Robert, N. (2002). The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford UP. (Chapter 1) Applied linguistics is concerned with… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Language & language acquisition Language & assessment Language & the brain Language & cognition Language & culture Applied linguistics is concerned with… Language & ideology 7. Language & instruction 8. Language & interaction 9. Language & listening, speaking, 10.Language & reading, writing language & media 6. Applied linguistics is concerned with… 11. Language & policy 12. language & research methodology 13. language & translation/ interpretation 14. language & technology English is the main 2nd language being learned & studied in the world today; there are 235 million L2 learners. AL & wrong structures e.g. Double & multiple negatives: I don’t want need no help from no body!