Who Built Stonehenge? • Quite a few theories on who built Stonehenge. • John Aubrey thought that The Druids built Stonehenge. • His theory wasn’t correct • Still a mystery What Is The Purpose Of Stonehenge? • Nobody knows the real purpose-used later on for burials. • Geoffrey of Monmouth, 12th century writer, wrote a theory on why Stonehenge was built. • Memorial for murdered noblemen • King and Merlin led expedition to Ireland to transport Giant’s Ring stone circle to Britain. • Giant’s Ring originally brought from Africa for healing powers. • Brought from Africa to Ireland by Giants. • Britons were unsuccessful moving the stones. • Merlin used magic to move stones. • Stones were moved to Britain to be assembled for the memorial of the murdered noblemen. More Theories • Mike Parker Pearson, head of Stonehenge Riverside Project, thought that Durrington Walls Henge was a place for the living, Stonehenge was a place for the dead. • Folk tale: Devil bought stones from Irish lady. He placed them on Salisbury Plain. Goal: Nobody would know who or what put the stones there. Construction of Stonehenge • Required a lot of time, commitment, and manual labor. • Constructed into 3 sections: Stonehenge phase 1, Stonehenge phase 2, Stonehenge phase 3. • Some argue that Stonehenge phase 3 had 5 stages itself. Stonehenge Phase One • Bank and ditch arrangement called a henge. Constructed 5,000 years ago. • Ditch was continuous but dug in sections with deer antlers. • Circle is 320 ft. in diameter; ditch itself was 20 ft. wide and 7 ft. deep. • Builders might have buried picks after this stage. • Used rubble to build steep bank circle. Dug 56 shallow holes, Aubrey Holes • 2 parallel stones erected at entrance. • Used for 500 years and abandoned. Stonehenge Phase 2 • Bluestones were assembled within original bank & ditch circles. • 2 interesting things: bluestones came from Preseli Mts.-250 miles away. • 80 Stones each weighing 4 tons. • Entrance of Bluestones is aligned with midsummer sunrise. • Phase left abandoned unfinished, small stones removed & holes filled. Stonehenge Phase 3 Part 1 • Phase 3 is seen today. • Circle of upright sarsen stones, each pair with a stone on top. • Originally 30 stones, only 17 now. • Stones came from a town 20 miles away, 7 ft. tall & weigh 50 tons each. • Surface smoothed with hammers. • Formation of horseshoe erected. Used 10 stones, 8 still there. Aligns with summer solstice sunrise. Stonehenge Phase 3 Part 2 • 100 yrs. Later, 20 bluestones came from phase 2, placed inside horseshoe. • Alter Stone is the biggest remaining stone. • Images of dagger & 14 axe heads carved on stones. • Last known construction was 1600 B.C. • Last usage during Iron Age.