Examples

Report
On your horizon
• Research Assignment
• Due Monday night
• Worth 15 pts.
• Will help you develop your speech
• Exam 2 Wednesday
• Review materials are up online
• 30% Short answer (Group) and 70% Multiple Choice
• Next Friday: Workshop for first 3 days of speakers
FROM “MUCH ADO ABOUT
NOTHING”
DOGBERRY
“Marry, sir, they have committed false report;
moreover, they have spoken untruths;
secondarily, they are slanders; sixth and
lastly, they have belied a lady; thirdly,
They have verified unjust things; and, to
conclude, they are lying knaves.”
Supporting your ideas
• Use a SET of Evidence
• Statistics
• Examples
• Testimony
Statistics
• Adds logos
• If you can measure it you feel like you know it
Evaluating Statistics
• Representative
• Reliability of sources
• Mean (the average)
• Median (the middle number)
• According to 2009-10
data collected by USA
Today:
• Mean (average) Salary:
$ 1,931,518
• Median Salary:
$ 812,500
• Lowest: $390,980
• Highest: 16+ million
Deploying Statistics
•
•
•
•
•
Identify sources
Use sparingly
Round off
Use visual aids
Explain your stats:
•
interpret
•
relate
Examples
• Brief, extended, or hypothetical
• Adds Pathos
• Strongest impact when vivid and well
delivered
• Strongest as evidence when linked
with statistics
Testimony
• Peer or Expert
• Adds Ethos
Quiz 4 Question 1
According to The New York Times Almanac,
California has the largest Native-American
population of any state in the union: 421,346.
Arizona is second with 294,118; and Oklahoma is
third with 287,124.
1. What kind of supporting material is this and how
could better follow the rules for this kind of
material?
Quiz 4 Question 2
In the words of one expert, “The state education
budget has been cut so much in recent years that
any further cuts will do irreparable harm to our
schools and the children they serve.”
2. What kind of supporting material is this and how
could better follow the rules for this kind of
material?
SAMPLE SPEECH
Factory Farms
100,000 cattle
20 Trillion Dollars
• 570 billion bags of hamburger substitute
• 700 students at 1 bag/week
• 15 million years
Justin’s Famous Chili
• $20 for ingredients
• 8 servings
• $20 / 8 = $2.50 per serving
Quiz 4 Question 3
What is the Pattern of Organization for each of these speeches?
3A
I. Overconsumption of meat causes several problems in the
United States
II. Cutting meat out of your diet just one day a week can have a
significant impact not only on your personal health, but on the
environment as well.
3B
I. Overcrowded animal shelters and terrible conditions at puppy
mills cause serious harm to animals.
II. You can help reduce this problem by adopting a pet from a
shelter.
III. An adopted pet will bring you many benefits.
Logos:
Logic & Reasoning
Read the following passage outloud.
FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH
THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS.
Reasoning: Toulmin Model
Pennies Speech Example
• We eliminated the half penny in 1857 without harmful
effect, so we can safely eliminate the penny today.
We eliminated
the half penny in
1857 without
harm.
We can safely
eliminate the penny.
Reasoning: Analogy
• Reasoning in which a speaker compares
two similar cases and infers that what is
true for the first case is also true for the
second.
• Sample Analogy in Debate
Reasoning: Analogy
Institutions like
Harvard now
have meatless
days.
You can adopt
meatless Monday
Reasoning: Analogy
• Figurative
• Students are more like oysters than sausages.
The job of teaching is not to stuff them and then
seal them up, but to help them open and reveal
the riches within. (Sydney J. Harris, "What True Education Should
Do," 1964)
• Literal
• Socialized medicine works in Canada, so
socialized medicine will work in the U.S.
Strong or Weak Analogies?
• A ban on all alcohol use in the dorms will work
at ISU because such a ban worked at Luther
College.
• We praise the lives of soldiers who sacrificed
their lives for the sake of others, why can’t we
celebrate embryos sacrificed in order to save
the lives of others?
Reasoning: Specific Instances
• Moves from particular facts to general conclusions
• Surveys and studies
• Neilson ratings and representative samples
Reasoning: Specific Instances
• UN group proves impact on greenhouse
gases
• Humane Society article: 2/3 of ag land for
animal support
• Manure from feedlots hurts groundwater
• Meat production hurts the environment
Reasoning: Specific Instances
1.impact on
greenhouse gases
2. Ag land for animal
support
3. Manure makes
runoff
Meat production hurts the
environment
Reasoning: Specific Instances
• my friends and I watched violent cartoons and
aren’t violent people, so . . . .
• This is a
• Hasty Generalization
Reasoning: Causal Arguments
• The most challenging of the types of reasoning.
• We can’t see causal relationships, we can only
infer them.
• Examples
• “cigarettes cause lung cancer”
• “Human beings are causing
global climate change”
Reasoning: Causal Arguments
Over-eating
meat leads to
obesity.
Serious negative
health complications
arise.
Reasoning: Causal Arguments
• Fallacies and Problems
• “post hoc ergo propter hoc”
• “after this therefore because of this”
• confusing a relationship in time with
cause and effect
Reasoning: Causal Arguments
• Fallacies and Problems
• multiple causation
• rainforest destruction is the cause of
global warming
• T.V. is responsible for school violence
• correlation vs. causation
Tips for success in causal reasoning.
• use causal chains
• use testimony of experts
• combine them with specific instances
Quiz 4 Questions 4 and 5
4. What kind of reasoning is used below? Is it strong or
weak? Why?
“According to a study by the American Medical Association,
men with bald spots have three times the risk of heart attack
as men with a full head of hair. Strange as it may seem, it
looks as if baldness is a cause of heart attacks.”
5. What kind of reasoning is used below? Is it strong or
weak? Why?
“Raising a child is just like having a pet—you need to feed it,
play with it, train it and everything will be fine.”
The Building Blocks
• Strong Analysis: Problem, Plan, Practicality
• Evidence / Supporting Material using Ethos, Logos
and Pathos
• Statistics, Examples, Testimony
• Reasoning
• Principle
• Specific Instances [generalization]
• Analogy
• Causal
• Audience Connection—
• With Content: Mental Dialogue
• With Structure
• With Delivery
Summary of all methods
Logos
Ethos
Pathos
• Statistics
• Expert testimony • Examples
• Specific
• Personal
• Emotional
competence
language
instances
• Common ground • Deliver with
• Causal
conviction
•
Deliver
with
• Analogical
conviction
Logos: Logic &
Good Reasons
Ethos: Credibility
Pathos: Emotional Appeal

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