The New Imperialism

Report
THE NEW IMPERIALISM
Western Dominated World
Partition of Africa
Europe challenges the Muslim World
British take over India
China
A WESTERN DOMINATED WORLD
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New Imperialism: the domination by one country of
another (political, economic, and/or cultural life)
European Nations expanded into Africa and Asia and
set out to dominate the world
4 Reasons for Imperialism
Economic Interests: The Industrial Revolution needed natural
resources. It also needed new markets.
 Political and Military Interests: Bases needed for navy/merchant
ships. Rivalry with other nations (ie-Eng & Fr) drove competition
 Humanitarian Goals: Missionaries, doctors, & officials sent to
“civilize” to become more westernized
 Social Darwinism: Survival of the Fittest. European nations believed
themselves to be superior and they should be conquering the
weaker nations
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SUCCESS OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM
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Weakness of “Non-western” states: Older civilizations were
declining
Western Advantages: Strong economies of western nations
gave them an advantage. Superior technologies (economic,
medical, military)
Resistance: Many areas resisted imperialism but were unable
to stop the tide. Some areas tried to improve conditions so
their people could resist. Others organized resistance to try to
expel the invaders
Criticism at Home: Some believed Imperialism was wrong
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Tool for the rich
Immoral (moving to greater democracy at home, but denying in overseas)
Racist
THE IMPACT OF IMPERIAL RULE
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Colonies:
Used military threat to maintain power
Direct Rule: Sent officials to run their colonies (FR)
 Indirect Rule: Set up local rulers beholden to the mother country.
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Encouraged
them to educate their children abroad (ENG)
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Protectorates:
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Spheres of Influence:
Local leaders left in place but were expected to
follow advice of European advisors. Usually did not require big military
precence
An outside power claimed exclusive
investment or trading privileges. European powers carved up China. The
US claimed Latin America in its “sphere of influence”
PARTITION OF AFRICA
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Africa in the early 1800’s was a huge continent with many
regions, ruled by hundreds of tribal leaders speaking hundreds of
languages with many different governing systems.
North Africa: Close ties to Muslim world, under Ottoman Empire
West Africa: Muslim revolutions overthrew leaders and
established a caliphate
East Africa: Islam influenced. Profitable traders (slave trade from
central Africa)
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Southern Africa: Battles between the tribal rulers
The Slave Trade: European nations began outlawing the slave
trade, but the slave trade with Asia and the Middle East
continued. Some from the western world will aid freed slaves to
resettle in Africa. (Liberia – 1847)
EUROPEAN CONTACTS INCREASE
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Explorers:
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Missionaries:
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Livingstone:
European explorers pushed into African interiors to map out
what was there. They had little or no understanding of the cultures they
encountered
Went into Africa to convert native people to Christianity.
They were sincere in their wish to help Africans. They built schools,
churches and medical hospitals. They focused on ending the slave trade.
Saw the African people as children in need of guidance.
The best known explorer-missionary. For 30 years, he
traveled Africa and lived among the Africa people. He was a huge opponent
of the slave trade
A SCRAMBLE FOR COLONIES
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King Leopold II of Belgium set off a race to colonize Africa
Berlin Conference: European powers met to discuss Africa. (African peoples
not invited) Some called for free trade. They agreed no European country could
claim any part of Africa they did not have government offices set up in. The rush to
colonize Africa was on
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Horrors in the Congo:
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French Expansion:
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Britain Takes its Share:
Belgians were brutal to the peoples of the Congo.
International outrage will push the Belgians out
France took a huge shares throughout Africa. It cost
thousands of French and African lives
Britain took less, but got the more populated areas.
South Africa was its main region
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Other Join In:
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The Monroe Doctrine kept the United States out of Africa
Other European powers also wanted to colonize to bolster the
status of their country and/or to grow their economic power
AFRICAN RESISTANCE
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Europeans met resistance across Africa
France, England and Germany had to put down revolts,
sometimes brutally
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Ethiopia Survives:
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New African Elite:
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Ethiopia will unite under a reforming ruler named
Menelik II. He hired European companies to modernize his country. When
Italy invaded in 1896, they were ready. Ethiopia was the only African nation
to preserve its independence
A class of Africans, western educated, emerge
during this timeframe. By the early 1900’s, African leaders were urging
nationalist movements to pursue self-determination and independence, but
few succeeded
QUICK REVIEW
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Use your book to complete the following assignment:
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Go to pages 319-324
On a piece of paper
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Write out each RED heading (4) with several spaced in between each
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Read through each section (stopping at the end of each section)
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Write out 3 questions about that section (leave space between questions)
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Write out the answer for your 3 questions
EUROPEAN CHALLENGES TO THE MUSLIM WORLD
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Stresses in the Muslim World: The Muslim world extended
from western Africa to southeast Asia. In the 1500’s, 3 empires
ruled this vast region. By the 1700’s, the Muslim empires were
on the decline for may reasons
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Central Governments had lost control over powerful groups within their regions
Corruption was widespread
In some areas, Muslim clerics helped stir discontent/revolt against the government
The Islamic Reform Movement:
Unlike Christian religions, the reform
movement in Islam was back towards stricter adherence to Muhammad’s original
teachings (Wahhabi – Saudi Arabia, Africa)
European Imperialism: Stronger European nations pressured failing Muslim empires
for trade deals, then pressured to special conditions for Europeans living in Muslim
nations. If denied or challenged, European nations would intervene. Even take over
PROBLEMS FOR THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
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At its height, Ottoman Empire stretched over Middle East, North
Africa and Southeast Europe.
Corruption and economic problems added to the struggles of
the PASHAS to keep control
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Nationalist Revolts: European nationalism catches hold. Ethnic groups begin
to struggle. Revolts against Ottoman rule rise up
European Pressure: European nations looks to gain advantage (profit) from
ailing Ottoman rule (France, Russia, England, Germany all stepped into areas)
Efforts to Westernize: Ottoman rulers tried to update to maintain control.
Reforms made people happier, but also exposed them to western culture
Young Turks: “Young Turks” pushed for reform to save the empire. Overthrew
the sultan. WWI will throw Ottoman Empire into crisis
Massacre of Armenians: Ottoman Empire traditionally let minority groups live
and practice their religions. But “Nationalism” led to fear of Christian minority
led Turks to massacre more than 1 million Armenian turks
EGYPT SEEKS TO MODERNIZE
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Muhammad Ali:
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The Suez Canal:
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A British Protectorate:
“Father of Modern Egypt” Brought political and
economic reform. Brought in western experts to build up a military. He
conquered neighboring Arabia, Syria, and Sudan
Egypt came under foreign control after Ali’s
reign. The French built the Suez Canal, considered a technological marvel.
It linked the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, opening trade routes.
Unable to pay off debts, Egypt was forced to sell off shares in Suez Canal
and the British took over
1882, the British took control after an
uprising of Egyptian nationalists. Egypt continued to modernize despite a
constant simmering of anger at foreign control
IRAN AND THE EUROPEAN POWERS
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Iran ruled by “Shah” from 1793-1925 with absolute power
The Shah took steps to modernize their nation
Russia and Britain battled for control of Iran. Each set up their
own “sphere of influence” within Iran
Each pressured the Shah’s government to give them
“concessions” or special economic rights.
To protect their interests, both sent in troops
Iranian nationalists were outraged. Two different groups were
battling foreign control
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Middle Class - wanted to continue to modernize and deal with the West
Muslim - wanted to boot out foreign control and take control of their nation (nonwestern ways)
BRITISH TAKE CONTROL OVER INDIA
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East India Company and Sepoy Rebellion
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Indian diversity led to British control (backed by their military superiority)
British policies were based on economics, modernization
Policies caused resentment: Sepoys rebelled
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EIC discriminated against the local soldiers (Sepoys)
The local soldiers rebelled
Uprising spread through India
British brought in military to squash the uprising: did so quickly and brutally
British Colonial Rule
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British policies to fit India into British Empire, Trade grew with Suez Canal
Better health care led to huge population growth/famine
Peace and order to Indian countryside. RR helped connect
Indian upper class benefitted (small number) but masses did not
BRITISH TAKE CONTROL OVER INDIA
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Different View on Culture
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Indian Nationalism
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Indian view of western culture: Some were impressed with power and technology
Tried to learn the ways of the west to benefit from British rule
Others felt their own culture (Hindu or Muslim) was best and resisted change
Most British knew little about Indian culture and looked down on their ways
British believed India needed to “westernize”, become more like them
Western educated Indians emerged and challenged British rule
They dreamed of an India, democratic and equal, without British rule (nationalism)
Indian National Congress – an elected body – pushed for greater democracy
moving towards self-rule
Muslims and Hindus worked together (rare) at first, but because the INC was
dominated by Hindus, the Muslims worried they would be oppressed by Hindus
Looking Ahead
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By 1900, resistance to British rule increased
Independence, not self-rule led to continuing conflict (1947-independence)
CH 12 READING ASSIGNMENT
Read Section 5 of Chapter 12 (p 333-337)\As
you are reading, fill in the handout of major
events and details
 Identify 5 (or more) key events & details
 Example:
Rightous
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Boxer
Uprising
Multinational Force
crushed rebellion
Harmonious
Fists
1900
CHINA AND THE NEW IMPERIALISM
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The Trade Issue (early on, China limited trade with foreigners)
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China a very “civilized” region of the world. Foreigners did not come in and
take over like they had in Africa. They came to trade
Huge trade surplus existed
The decline of the Chinese empire and the Industrial Revolution will bring a
shift of power
The Opium War (The British made huge profits trading 0pium from India for
Chinese Tea, Chinese got addicted to opium)
The Chinese Gov’t outlawed opium and executed Chinese drug dealers.
They called on Britain to stop the trade, Britain refused. Chinese warships
clashed with traders. The British brought in their military and destroyed the
outdated Chinese military
China made to accept the Treaty of Nanjing (payments to Britain, the island
of Hong Kong
5 ports opened to British trade. British living there would be under British
law
A series of “unequal laws” put China at a huge disadvantage
CHINA AND THE NEW IMPERIALISM
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Internal Problems
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Scandal, Corrupt Upper class, population explosion all led to
huge problems for the poor
The Taiping Rebellion: Peasants rebelled as poverty/misery
increased
A teacher (citing religious visions) pushed for social reforms
and an end to the Qing Dynasty
The Taiping Rebels took control of parts of China and held
for over 14 years
Qing Dynasty almost toppled, 20-30 million died. Power
shared with regional leaders
European pressures for trade and Russian control of
northern China also challenged dynasty
CHINA AND THE NEW IMPERIALISM
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Reform Efforts
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Most officials resisted western ways. Challenged teachings of Confucius
Viewed modernization as dangerous
New empress (CiXi) based rule on teachings of Confucius
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“Self-Strength Movement” was a push to bring in western technologies to
strengthen China. Did not work because government did not back the
movement
War with Japan (1894) – Chinese lost war with Japan. Lost Taiwan (old
ways lost war)
Lost war revealed Chinese weakness. The Western powers moved into take
control
“Spheres of Influence” Control of regions of China. US did not take part.
US pushed for “Open Door Policy”
The Chinese were never asked about this. The European nations decided
Battle within China over modernizing or relying on past methods.
Reformers lost
CHINA AND THE NEW IMPERIALISM
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Qing Dynasty Falls
 Boxer
Rebellion – tried to drive out foreigners.
Western nations fought back, crushed Boxers
 Chinese forced to support foreign intervention.
Chinese economy boomed
 3 Principles
1) Nationalism 2) Democracy
 1911
3) Economic Security
– A new Chinese republic formed (Sun Yixian)
but internal rebellions rocked China over the next
37 years. Also resisting foreign intervention
REVIEW ASSIGNMENT
Use your books (Ch 12) to complete the review
assignment.
 Assignment (p. 338)
Building Vocabulary (#1-10): use words to
create a matching quiz
Recalling Key Facts (#11-16): Answer these
questions fully
Critical Thinking (# 17,18, & 20)
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ESSAYS FOR CHAPTER 12
1) Why did the European nations and the
United States imperialize in the 1800’s?
(explain and give examples of the 4 reasons)
 2) Many of the local people DID NOT want
foreigners to control their countries. Explain 3
different examples of rebellions to foreign rule.
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