THE NEW IMPERIALISM Western Dominated World Partition of Africa Europe challenges the Muslim World British take over India China A WESTERN DOMINATED WORLD New Imperialism: the domination by one country of another (political, economic, and/or cultural life) European Nations expanded into Africa and Asia and set out to dominate the world 4 Reasons for Imperialism Economic Interests: The Industrial Revolution needed natural resources. It also needed new markets. Political and Military Interests: Bases needed for navy/merchant ships. Rivalry with other nations (ie-Eng & Fr) drove competition Humanitarian Goals: Missionaries, doctors, & officials sent to “civilize” to become more westernized Social Darwinism: Survival of the Fittest. European nations believed themselves to be superior and they should be conquering the weaker nations SUCCESS OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM Weakness of “Non-western” states: Older civilizations were declining Western Advantages: Strong economies of western nations gave them an advantage. Superior technologies (economic, medical, military) Resistance: Many areas resisted imperialism but were unable to stop the tide. Some areas tried to improve conditions so their people could resist. Others organized resistance to try to expel the invaders Criticism at Home: Some believed Imperialism was wrong Tool for the rich Immoral (moving to greater democracy at home, but denying in overseas) Racist THE IMPACT OF IMPERIAL RULE Colonies: Used military threat to maintain power Direct Rule: Sent officials to run their colonies (FR) Indirect Rule: Set up local rulers beholden to the mother country. Encouraged them to educate their children abroad (ENG) Protectorates: Spheres of Influence: Local leaders left in place but were expected to follow advice of European advisors. Usually did not require big military precence An outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges. European powers carved up China. The US claimed Latin America in its “sphere of influence” PARTITION OF AFRICA Africa in the early 1800’s was a huge continent with many regions, ruled by hundreds of tribal leaders speaking hundreds of languages with many different governing systems. North Africa: Close ties to Muslim world, under Ottoman Empire West Africa: Muslim revolutions overthrew leaders and established a caliphate East Africa: Islam influenced. Profitable traders (slave trade from central Africa) Southern Africa: Battles between the tribal rulers The Slave Trade: European nations began outlawing the slave trade, but the slave trade with Asia and the Middle East continued. Some from the western world will aid freed slaves to resettle in Africa. (Liberia – 1847) EUROPEAN CONTACTS INCREASE Explorers: Missionaries: Livingstone: European explorers pushed into African interiors to map out what was there. They had little or no understanding of the cultures they encountered Went into Africa to convert native people to Christianity. They were sincere in their wish to help Africans. They built schools, churches and medical hospitals. They focused on ending the slave trade. Saw the African people as children in need of guidance. The best known explorer-missionary. For 30 years, he traveled Africa and lived among the Africa people. He was a huge opponent of the slave trade A SCRAMBLE FOR COLONIES King Leopold II of Belgium set off a race to colonize Africa Berlin Conference: European powers met to discuss Africa. (African peoples not invited) Some called for free trade. They agreed no European country could claim any part of Africa they did not have government offices set up in. The rush to colonize Africa was on Horrors in the Congo: French Expansion: Britain Takes its Share: Belgians were brutal to the peoples of the Congo. International outrage will push the Belgians out France took a huge shares throughout Africa. It cost thousands of French and African lives Britain took less, but got the more populated areas. South Africa was its main region Other Join In: The Monroe Doctrine kept the United States out of Africa Other European powers also wanted to colonize to bolster the status of their country and/or to grow their economic power AFRICAN RESISTANCE Europeans met resistance across Africa France, England and Germany had to put down revolts, sometimes brutally Ethiopia Survives: New African Elite: Ethiopia will unite under a reforming ruler named Menelik II. He hired European companies to modernize his country. When Italy invaded in 1896, they were ready. Ethiopia was the only African nation to preserve its independence A class of Africans, western educated, emerge during this timeframe. By the early 1900’s, African leaders were urging nationalist movements to pursue self-determination and independence, but few succeeded QUICK REVIEW Use your book to complete the following assignment: Go to pages 319-324 On a piece of paper Write out each RED heading (4) with several spaced in between each Read through each section (stopping at the end of each section) Write out 3 questions about that section (leave space between questions) Write out the answer for your 3 questions EUROPEAN CHALLENGES TO THE MUSLIM WORLD Stresses in the Muslim World: The Muslim world extended from western Africa to southeast Asia. In the 1500’s, 3 empires ruled this vast region. By the 1700’s, the Muslim empires were on the decline for may reasons Central Governments had lost control over powerful groups within their regions Corruption was widespread In some areas, Muslim clerics helped stir discontent/revolt against the government The Islamic Reform Movement: Unlike Christian religions, the reform movement in Islam was back towards stricter adherence to Muhammad’s original teachings (Wahhabi – Saudi Arabia, Africa) European Imperialism: Stronger European nations pressured failing Muslim empires for trade deals, then pressured to special conditions for Europeans living in Muslim nations. If denied or challenged, European nations would intervene. Even take over PROBLEMS FOR THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE At its height, Ottoman Empire stretched over Middle East, North Africa and Southeast Europe. Corruption and economic problems added to the struggles of the PASHAS to keep control Nationalist Revolts: European nationalism catches hold. Ethnic groups begin to struggle. Revolts against Ottoman rule rise up European Pressure: European nations looks to gain advantage (profit) from ailing Ottoman rule (France, Russia, England, Germany all stepped into areas) Efforts to Westernize: Ottoman rulers tried to update to maintain control. Reforms made people happier, but also exposed them to western culture Young Turks: “Young Turks” pushed for reform to save the empire. Overthrew the sultan. WWI will throw Ottoman Empire into crisis Massacre of Armenians: Ottoman Empire traditionally let minority groups live and practice their religions. But “Nationalism” led to fear of Christian minority led Turks to massacre more than 1 million Armenian turks EGYPT SEEKS TO MODERNIZE Muhammad Ali: The Suez Canal: A British Protectorate: “Father of Modern Egypt” Brought political and economic reform. Brought in western experts to build up a military. He conquered neighboring Arabia, Syria, and Sudan Egypt came under foreign control after Ali’s reign. The French built the Suez Canal, considered a technological marvel. It linked the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, opening trade routes. Unable to pay off debts, Egypt was forced to sell off shares in Suez Canal and the British took over 1882, the British took control after an uprising of Egyptian nationalists. Egypt continued to modernize despite a constant simmering of anger at foreign control IRAN AND THE EUROPEAN POWERS Iran ruled by “Shah” from 1793-1925 with absolute power The Shah took steps to modernize their nation Russia and Britain battled for control of Iran. Each set up their own “sphere of influence” within Iran Each pressured the Shah’s government to give them “concessions” or special economic rights. To protect their interests, both sent in troops Iranian nationalists were outraged. Two different groups were battling foreign control Middle Class - wanted to continue to modernize and deal with the West Muslim - wanted to boot out foreign control and take control of their nation (nonwestern ways) BRITISH TAKE CONTROL OVER INDIA East India Company and Sepoy Rebellion Indian diversity led to British control (backed by their military superiority) British policies were based on economics, modernization Policies caused resentment: Sepoys rebelled EIC discriminated against the local soldiers (Sepoys) The local soldiers rebelled Uprising spread through India British brought in military to squash the uprising: did so quickly and brutally British Colonial Rule British policies to fit India into British Empire, Trade grew with Suez Canal Better health care led to huge population growth/famine Peace and order to Indian countryside. RR helped connect Indian upper class benefitted (small number) but masses did not BRITISH TAKE CONTROL OVER INDIA Different View on Culture Indian Nationalism Indian view of western culture: Some were impressed with power and technology Tried to learn the ways of the west to benefit from British rule Others felt their own culture (Hindu or Muslim) was best and resisted change Most British knew little about Indian culture and looked down on their ways British believed India needed to “westernize”, become more like them Western educated Indians emerged and challenged British rule They dreamed of an India, democratic and equal, without British rule (nationalism) Indian National Congress – an elected body – pushed for greater democracy moving towards self-rule Muslims and Hindus worked together (rare) at first, but because the INC was dominated by Hindus, the Muslims worried they would be oppressed by Hindus Looking Ahead By 1900, resistance to British rule increased Independence, not self-rule led to continuing conflict (1947-independence) CH 12 READING ASSIGNMENT Read Section 5 of Chapter 12 (p 333-337)\As you are reading, fill in the handout of major events and details Identify 5 (or more) key events & details Example: Rightous Boxer Uprising Multinational Force crushed rebellion Harmonious Fists 1900 CHINA AND THE NEW IMPERIALISM The Trade Issue (early on, China limited trade with foreigners) China a very “civilized” region of the world. Foreigners did not come in and take over like they had in Africa. They came to trade Huge trade surplus existed The decline of the Chinese empire and the Industrial Revolution will bring a shift of power The Opium War (The British made huge profits trading 0pium from India for Chinese Tea, Chinese got addicted to opium) The Chinese Gov’t outlawed opium and executed Chinese drug dealers. They called on Britain to stop the trade, Britain refused. Chinese warships clashed with traders. The British brought in their military and destroyed the outdated Chinese military China made to accept the Treaty of Nanjing (payments to Britain, the island of Hong Kong 5 ports opened to British trade. British living there would be under British law A series of “unequal laws” put China at a huge disadvantage CHINA AND THE NEW IMPERIALISM Internal Problems Scandal, Corrupt Upper class, population explosion all led to huge problems for the poor The Taiping Rebellion: Peasants rebelled as poverty/misery increased A teacher (citing religious visions) pushed for social reforms and an end to the Qing Dynasty The Taiping Rebels took control of parts of China and held for over 14 years Qing Dynasty almost toppled, 20-30 million died. Power shared with regional leaders European pressures for trade and Russian control of northern China also challenged dynasty CHINA AND THE NEW IMPERIALISM Reform Efforts Most officials resisted western ways. Challenged teachings of Confucius Viewed modernization as dangerous New empress (CiXi) based rule on teachings of Confucius “Self-Strength Movement” was a push to bring in western technologies to strengthen China. Did not work because government did not back the movement War with Japan (1894) – Chinese lost war with Japan. Lost Taiwan (old ways lost war) Lost war revealed Chinese weakness. The Western powers moved into take control “Spheres of Influence” Control of regions of China. US did not take part. US pushed for “Open Door Policy” The Chinese were never asked about this. The European nations decided Battle within China over modernizing or relying on past methods. Reformers lost CHINA AND THE NEW IMPERIALISM The Qing Dynasty Falls Boxer Rebellion – tried to drive out foreigners. Western nations fought back, crushed Boxers Chinese forced to support foreign intervention. Chinese economy boomed 3 Principles 1) Nationalism 2) Democracy 1911 3) Economic Security – A new Chinese republic formed (Sun Yixian) but internal rebellions rocked China over the next 37 years. Also resisting foreign intervention REVIEW ASSIGNMENT Use your books (Ch 12) to complete the review assignment. Assignment (p. 338) Building Vocabulary (#1-10): use words to create a matching quiz Recalling Key Facts (#11-16): Answer these questions fully Critical Thinking (# 17,18, & 20) ESSAYS FOR CHAPTER 12 1) Why did the European nations and the United States imperialize in the 1800’s? (explain and give examples of the 4 reasons) 2) Many of the local people DID NOT want foreigners to control their countries. Explain 3 different examples of rebellions to foreign rule.