Cooking with Dairy and Eggs

Report
Cooking with Dairy and
Eggs
Cooking Principles of Dairy
Cooking Principles
Because milk is protein food, special care
must be taken during cooking to prevent
the following:
Scum Formation-a solid layer that
often forms on the surface of milk
during heating. To prevent scum
formation, stir the milk during heating
and cover the pan.
Boiling over-usually caused by scum
formation. Use low heat to prevent.
Continued
Scorching-burning that results in
a color change. To prevent, use
low heat.
Curdling-high temperature, acids,
tannins, enzymes and salts cause
the milk proteins to coagulate and
cause clumps. Use a low
temperature and fresh milk to
prevent.
Preparing Common Milk
Based Foods
White Sauce-starch thickened milk product.
Classic White Sauce is prepared with a roux- a
cooked paste of flour and fat.
Melt 1 part fat over low heat. Stir in 1 part flour to
form a roux.
Stir in milk. Stir constantly as you cook the mixture
over medium heat until it thickens into a smooth
sauce.
You can use a slurry (a liquid mixture of milk and
flour) to thicken a white sauce.
Preparing Other Sauces
and Gravy
To make a cheese sauce, stir grated
cheese into a basic white sauce after it
has thickened.
To make gravy-juices from meat are used
in place of some or all the milk to give
gravy flavor.
Cheese
Cheese is a
concentrated form of
milk.
To make cheese, milk
is coagulated-the
curd (solid part) is
separated from the
whey(liquid part)
Cooking with Cheese
Like all high protein foods, heat can
adversely affect cheese.
If you cook cheese at too high of a
temperature, the cheese will become
rubbery and tough.
Objective 7.05
Emulsifiers
Mixture that forms when you combine liquids
that ordinarily do not mix
 Example:

Thickeners
Heat causes the protein in eggs to coagulate
(thicken)
 Eggs can be used alone as the thickening agent
or used with starch
 Example:

Binding Agents
Hold together ingredients in foods that normally
would not stick together.
 Example: Meatloaf

Interfering Agents
Ice cream and sherbet stay creamy because of the
eggs in them
 Eggs prevent the formation of ice crystals.
 Example:

Egg Foams

Created by adding air to food by beating and
whipping
Factors Affecting Egg Foams





Temperature
 separate easily when cold
 can be beaten to max. volume when at room temperature
 let stand at room temperature for 30 minutes before
beating
Beating Time
 Can be underbeaten or overbeaten
Fat and Fat containing ingredients
 Egg yolk will inhibit formation of foam
 Use glass or metal bowl and clean beaters
Acid
 Makes egg whites more stable…. Example is cream of
tarter
Sugar
 Increases stability
 Increases beating time…add when foam has reached most
of its volume
Stage 1

Foamy

Bubbles and foam on the surface…mixture will flow
out of bowl when tilted
Stage 2

Soft peaks



Have reached full volume
Look white and shiny
When you lift beaters out of foam, foam will stand in peaks
that curl over at the tip
Stage 3

Stiff peaks



Full volume
White and shiny
When you lift the beaters, peaks will stand up straight
STAGES OF FOAM FORMATION
From PowerPoint Presentation tool for Understanding Food, 1 edition by 2000. Reprinted with
permission of Wadsworth, an imprint of the WadsworthGroup, a division of Thompson
SOUFFLES
 The
main ingredients
of a soufflé are a thick
base generally made
from a white sauce
or pastry cream, an
egg white foam, and
flavoring ingredients

White sauce: A mixture
of flour, milk, and usually
fat.
 Stiffly
beaten egg
whites are folded
into the thick egg
yolk mixture.
Figure 13-10
PREPARATION OF EGGS
 Dry
Heat
Fried
 Scrambled
 omelets

 Moist
heat
“Boiled” eggs
Coddled eggs
prepared in a
cup
 Poached eggs
 A variety of
custards
 Eggs that are
prepared using
the microwave


DOUBLE BOILER: WATER PLACED INSIDE THE
BOTTOM PAN PREVENTS DIRECT HEAT AND AVOIDS
SCORCHING
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