UNIT 6: Sex Education, Human Reproduction, and STDs Mean Girls Video Clip Fresh Prince Video Clip Reproduction Health • • Maintaining good reproductive health is important to your total health. WHY? Lance Armstrong—finding a lump on his testicle. Luckily he found it soon enough to treat it before it spread too much. MALES • Preventing STDS • Preventing Infertility • Regular Medical Check-Ups • Preventing Trauma • Preventing Jock Itch • Preventing Hernias FEMALES • Preventing STDS • Preventing Infertility • Regular Medical Check-Ups • Preventing Vaginal Irritation • For women, a regular menstrual cycle is a good sing of reproductive health. Infertility Link https://health.google.com/health/ref/Infertility Detecting Testicular Cancer • Most common cancer between males ages 15 to 35. • Contact doctor if there are any troublesome signs. Detecting Breast Cancer • Breast cancer is leading cause of cancer death in women ages 20 to 59. • A clinical breast exam should be part of a periodic health exam. Women in their 20s and 30s should schedule such checkups about once every three years, and women 40 and older should get such an exam every year. Male Reproductive System • Produces sperm to deliver to the female reproductive system • SPERM: sex cells that are produced by the male reproductive system called the testes, and are needed to fertilize an egg • PENIS: removes urine and delivers sperm to female R.S.; during sexual activity blood vessels fill and cause it to become erect • SEMEN: released from epididymis during ejaculation when sperm and other secretions are released from the penis Male Reproductive System • Made of internal and external organs • TESTES: makes sperm and Testosterone (sex hormone, also causes facial hair, body odor and voice to deepen) • Produce several hundred million sperm each day • SCROTUM: skin covered sac that hangs from the body to keep sperm cooler since they can not properly develop at higher temperatures of inner body Female Reproductive System • EGGS or OVA: sex cells that are produced by female reproductive system called the ovaries • FERTILIZATION: process by which a sperm and egg and their genetic material join to create a new human life • FALLOPIAN TUBES: Female reproductive organ that transports an egg to the uterus; sperm fertilizes the egg here Female Reproductive System • Function of female reproductive system is to make eggs and to provide a place to support and nourish a developing human • Internal and external organs • Breasts are not directly involved in producing human life but are considered secondary reproductive organs because they produce milk for the child Female Reproductive System VAGINA: connects outside of body to the uterus and receives the sperm during reproduction; allows menstrual flow to exit body; also the birth canal through which baby is delivered OVARIES: produces egg and estrogen and progesterone. Eggs are there when the female is born. ESTROGEN: hormone that causes pubic and underarm hair growth, strengthens bones, regulate monthly release of an egg and prepare body for pregnancy UTERUS: A muscular cavity located at the top of the vagina and between the bladder and rectum; a place to support a developing human ENDOMETRIUM: thin lining in the uterus; shed monthly in response to the hormonal changes of the menstrual period How the Menstrual Cycle Works • Monthly cycle of hormone-controlled changes that usually lasts 28-35 days • Matures an egg and prepares the uterus for pregnancy • Endometrium grows rich and thick to prepare uterus for the fertilized egg. • If pregnancy does not occur, the uterus must get rid of this lining so that it can grow a new one in the next cycle. How the Menstrual Cycle Works The menstrual flow thus consists of: 1. the shed uterine lining 2. blood (this comes from the blood vessels which are torn when the lining is shed) 3. the degenerated unfertilized egg Occurs approximately 500 times (once per month) until women reach menopause between ages 50 and 55. What do you consider as sex? • Intercourse Vaginal Anal • Oral—still not considered “safe” because it is associated with the same diseases as vaginal or anal sex • Foreplay Anal/Oral will protect you from getting pregnant, but that is it! What can happen if you have sex? Pregnancy • • Emotional Issues • STD’s STD’s • STD’s: Infections usually transmitted through sexual intercourse or other intimate sexual contact; can be curable (bacteria) or incurable (virus) It is possible to have more than 1 STD at a time. 1 out of every 4 sexually active teens has an STD - Chlamydia: (bacterial) most popular STD in United States - Gonorrhea: (bacterial) - Genital Warts (HPV) - Herpes: (Virus) - HIV/AIDS (Virus) - Syphilis - Crabs (pubic lice) - Hepatitis Bacterial Disease vs. Virus • Bacterial diseases such as gonorrhea and Chlamydia can be easily treated using antibiotic and are curable. However, they can be re-acquired. • Viruses (AIDS & Herpes) may be treated but can not be cured! They will stay with you the rest of your life! Symptoms of somebody who has an STD… • • • • • • • • NONE Painful Urination Warts/Blisters Abdominal Pains Rash Genital/Oral/Anal Ulcers Foul Smelling Discharge Bleeding during sex You can’t tell if somebody has an STD based on the way they look. They may look completely normal. Gonorrhea Herpes Syphilis Pubic Lice What does somebody with HIV look like? Just like anybody else!! Getting Tested Sex usually takes place where? How do you know if somebody has an STD? Males vs. Females HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) • First recognized in the 1980s in a number of gay, white, men in California. Thought to have originated from the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) that affects monkeys. • Attacks the human immune system • HIV is virus that causes AIDS • People with HIV usually develop AIDS within first 10 years of getting HIV • There is NO cure, only treatment to slow HIV down. • Transmitted 3 Ways… 1. Sexual Activity 2. Needles 3. Infected mothers giving birth You Cannot get AIDS from… • • • • • • • • Hugging Kissing Shaking Hands Toilet Seats Coughing Sneezing Drinking fountains Mosquitoes Abstinence • Abstinence- the decision to not have ANY sexual intercourse • It is the only 100% effective method in preventing HIV, STD’s, and pregnancy • The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases is to abstain from sexual intercourse, or to be in a longterm mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected. • Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmission of STDs.