The Psychodynamic Model PPT (2)

As we go through the power point, make sure
you are reading through the multiple choice
questions and answering them
You will need the answers to these questions
Our behaviour is driven by unconscious
Childhood is a critical period in development
Psychological disorders are caused by
problems in the unconscious mind
These conflicts of the mind originate in
Conscious: The part of the
mind we are aware of –
everyday thoughts and
Preconscious: Thoughts and
memories not accessible at all
times, but easily recalled
Unconscious: The deep dark
shameful part! Repressed
thoughts, memories and
You will be given the letter a, b or c
You need to design a character with the set of traits which
match your letter
Selfish, seeks pleasure at any cost, can be aggressive, risky
Uptight, always follows rules, worries a lot, sensible
Considerate, rational and well-balanced, compromise
What job would your character be likely to do?
What are their friends like?
Would you want to be friends with them?
Which character; a, b or c would your character argue the most
Freud believed we had 3 different personality
structures in our mind
So we have character a, b and c in our mind
all the time!!
Character a = id
Character b = superego
Character c = ego
Animal instincts
Works on the pleasure principle
Present at birth – baby is completely selfish
It wants to do what it wants and when it
wants to
Moral part of psyche
Acts like our conscience
Wants to do what is right
Develops around age 5
Linked with reality (everyday life)
It is conscious and rational
Based on the reality principle
Develops by age 3 – we are aware of others
Negotiates between id and superego
Normally, the id, ego and superego are in balance and the ego
is in charge!
Balanced psyche:
Freud believed that an imbalance due to unresolved conflicts
causes mental disorders
For example, conflicts between the id, ego and superego
cause anxiety
Anxiety is caused when the there is an imbalance and
the superego is in control
e.g. anxiety and guilt – which may lead to depression or
anxiety disorders
Risky behaviours which focus on pleasure occur when
the id is in control
e.g. sex, food, drink and drugs – can be reckless
behaviour with no care and lead to Schizophrenia
There are a number of stages of childhood, during
which the child seeks pleasure from a different
To be psychologically healthy, we must successfully
complete each stage
Mental abnormality can occur if a stage is not
completed successfully – the person becomes
Old Age Pensioners Love Guinness!
Mouth – sucking
& eating
Anus – retaining
& expelling
Genitals masturbation
Gender identity
Social relationships
– no sexual
No lasting
Genitals – sexual
Must have
completion of
This occurs during the Phallic stage
According to Freud, the boy wishes to possess
his mother and replace his father, who the child
views as a rival for the mother's affections.
The stage for girls is known as the Electra
complex in which girls feel desire for their
fathers and jealousy of their mothers.
This is an important part of forming sexual
identity; boys relate to their father and girls
relate to their mother
Boys experience castration anxiety: Freud
believed that as the child becomes aware of the
physical differences between males and females,
he assumes that the female's penis has been
removed and that his father will also castrate him
as a punishment for desiring his mother.
According to Freud, this occurs when a girl
realizes that she has no penis. "Girls hold their
mother responsible for their lack of a penis and
do not forgive her for their being thus put at a
The constant disagreements between the id, the
ego and the superego can lead to a lot of anxiety
So the mind develops various methods of
defending itself
We all use defence mechanisms on a daily basis
They are unconscious – we aren’t aware of what
we’re doing
But… if we over use them they can lead to mental
abnormalities – psychosis?
Displacement: you redirect your feelings to
another target
It’s not my fault my marriage
is over. It’s the newspapers’.
And those women for selling
their stories… And Cheryl’s
for not being there enough…
And my mum’s for not
breastfeeding me. I hate
them all!
Denial: You completely reject the thought or
My Ashley would
never cheat on me…
Aggression against the
parents turned against
Fear of something (e.g.
sex) and this is
projected onto
something else

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