Test Review According to Freud, the part of the psyche that stops a person from stealing is the a. Collective unconscious b. Id c. Superego d. ego Answer: C Superego Gary feels that his younger son George is unattractive and not very smart. He accuses his wife of picking on George and favoring their other son. What defense is being used? What is projection? Freud saw this part of the unconscious as operating in terms of the reality principle. What is the ego? According to Freud, basic sexual and aggressive drives reside in the a. Id b. Collective unconscious c. Superego d. ego Answer a) Id Which psychologist suggested that traits are inherited? Who is Gordon Allport? Which of the following is a “Robust Five” personality factor? a. Warm and cheerful b. Shy and emotional c. Sluggish and cool d. Agreeableness-disagreeableness Answer d) agreeableness-disagreeableness Which psychologist introduced the term inferiority complex ? Who is Alfred Adler? What is Carl Jung’s term for the part of the psyche similar to Freud’s “unconscious”? What is the personal unconscious? Sixteen year old Tom had started using drugs, and the changes in his behavior made it pretty obvious, but Tom’s parents didn’t believe the school principal when she called to talk to them about the problem. What defense mechanism is being used? Denial. Which psychologist believed that social relationships are the greatest influence on personality? a. Karen Horney b. Carl Jung c. Alfred Adler d. Sigmund Freud Answer a) Karen Horney Images such as supreme being and fairy godmothers are examples of? What are archetypes? He introduced a personality theory that is based on body typology. Who is William Sheldon? True or False? Repression protects you from disturbing memories, forbidden desires, painful feelings by burying such material in the unconscious. True! Trixie was homesick and anxious when she moved into the dormitory and started her first year in college. She began to sleep with her old teddy bear again because it made her feel better. What defense mechanism is being used? What is Regression? True or False? Freud often used hypnosis as a method of exploring the unconscious, until many people denied the things they said when they were in a hypnotic state. True This “type” can be described as people who are thoughtful, passive and quiet. What are Introverts? He developed the 16 PF scale based on 16 source traits. Who is Raymond Cattell? Mark behaves like a stereotypical “heman,” but he is actually anxious and insecure about his gender identity. What defense mechanism is being used? What is Reaction Formation? Your image of who you are and what you value. What is “self”? Humanist who believed that many people suffer from a conflict between what they value in themselves and what they believe other people value in them. Who is Carl Rogers? The conditions a person must meet in order to regard himself or herself positively. What are conditions of worth? A school of psychology that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of maximum potential by each unique individual. Humanistic Psychology The term for realizing one’s unique potential. What is self-actualization? Bandura called this our view of our ability to succeed. What is self efficacy? The occurrence of rewards or punishments following particular behaviors. What are contingencies of reinforcement? In this book, Skinner described an Utopian society. What is Walden Two? His work in personality development focused on the importance of learning by observation. Who is Albert Bandura? Belief that the proper subject matter of psychology is objectively observable behavior---and nothing else. What is behaviorism? Certain specific means by which the ego unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant impulses or circumstances. What are Defense Mechanisms? The consistent, enduring, and unique characteristics of a person. What is personality? An outgoing, active person who directs his or her energies and interests toward other people and things. What is an Extravert? A stable characteristic that can be observed in certain situations. Cattell found 46 of these. What are surface traits? A characteristic or feature that is so pervasive the person is almost identified with it. (E.g. Mr. Scrooge is stingy and cold-hearted). What is a cardinal trait? A tendency to react to a situation in a way that remain stable over time. An individual whose person and self coincide. What is “Fully Functioning”? This school of psychology claims our analysis of our own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings shape our personalities. What is Cognitive Psychology? unaware unconscious True or False? Freud believed that all life moves toward death and that the desire for a final end shows up in human personality as destructiveness and aggression. True Tests that provide subjects with ambiguous stimuli for interpretation are called______tests. Projective The most widely used projective test is the _________, in which subjects are shown a series of ________. Rorschach; inkblots Sarah has a relatively low level of brain arousal. Eysenck would probably predict that she is a. An extravert b. An introvert c. An unstable person d. Both a and c A; an extravert A psychologist at the campus mental health center administered an empirically derived personality test to diagnose an emotionally troubled student. Which test did the psychologist most likely administer? a. The MMPI b. The TAT c. The Rorschach d. The Wechsler The MMPI In high school Britta and Debbie were best friends. They thought they were a lot alike, as did everyone else who knew them. After high schools they went on to very different colleges, careers, and life courses. Now, at their 25th reunion, they are shocked at how little they have in common. Bandura would suggest that they differences reflect the interactive efforts of environment, personality, and behavior, which he refers to as: a. Reciprocal determinism b. Personal control c. Identification d. The self-serving bias A; reciprocal determinism Wanda wishes to instill in her children an accepting attitude toward other people. Maslow and Rogers would probably recommend that she: a. Teach her children first to accept themselves b. Use discipline sparingly c. Be affectionate with her children only when they behave as she wishes d. Do all of the above A; teach her children first to accept themselves Andrew’s grandfather, who has lived a rich ad productive life, is a spontaneous, loving, and self-accepting person. Maslow might say that the grandfather a. Has an internal locus of control b. Is an extravert c. Has resolved all the conflicts of the psychosexual stages d. Is a self-actualizing person D; self actualized person The school psychologist believes that having a positive self-concept is necessary before students can achieve their potential. Evidently, the school psychologist is working within the ___perspective. a. Psychoanalytic b. Trait c. Humanistic d. Social-cognitive C; Humanistic Id is to ego as ______is to ______. a. Reality principle; pleasure principle b. Pleasure principle; reality principle c. Conscious forces; unconscious forces d. Conscience; “personality executive” B; In Freud’s theory the id operates according to the pleasure principle; the ego operates according to the reality principle According to William Sheldon, this “type” is laid-back, loving and social. a. Endomorph b. Ectomorph c. Mesomorph d. Hectomorph According to Sheldon, Endomorphs are laid-back, loving and social types. True or False? Mesomorphs typically show aggressive, competitive behavior. True It means “unaware”. What is unconscious? An aspect of personality that is considered to be reasonably stable over time. What is a trait? Storehouse of instincts, urges, and memories of the entire human species throughout history. What is the collective unconscious?