Erik Erikson With James Marcia

Report
Biography
Born June 15, 1902
Born in Frankfurt, Germany
Biological father was Danish
and left before he was born
Blonde and blue-eyed, was
made fun of by his Jewish
counterparts.
Jewish, he was rejected by
his gentile counterparts.
Feeling that he didn’t fit into
either cultures, he began his
identity crisis very early.
Brief Education and Vocational Background
o Was an artist in the late 1920s when he met
Anna Freud.
o Began to study child psychoanalyses from her at
the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute.
o In 1933, when he completed his certification, he
fled from Germany to Boston as Nazism was on
the rise.
o Taught in many schools including: Harvard
Medical School, Yale, & Berkley.
Crisis (Stage) Development
Noted for being the
father of psychoSOCIAL
development.
Focused less on libido
and more on adaptive
functions of the ego.
Influenced by Sigmund
Freud.
8 stages viewed as
crises.
Expanded Freud’s stages
of growth to include life
span development.
‘Crisis’ refers to the
individual facing a
decision to choose
meaningful alternatives.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Ages 0-1
Deals with the
Orality of infants
and the maternal
relationship (or
caretaker).
Virtue = Hope
Main Question:
Does the child
believe its
caregivers to be
reliable?
Autonomy vs. Shame
Ages 2-3
Deals with Freud’s
anal stage.
Child must develop a
sense of self-control
without a loss of self
esteem.
Virtue = Will
Main Question: Can I
do things myself or
must I always rely on
others?
Initiative vs. Guilt
Ages 4-6
Follows Freud’s phallic
stage
Deals with the child’s
realistic sense of
responsibility and
purpose.
Virtue = Purpose
Main Question:
Am I good or am I
bad?
Industry vs. Inferiority
Ages 7-12
Deals with the importance
for the child to develop a
sense of competence in
something, where creativity
is stressed and there is
danger in the child
becoming a slave of
industry and competition
where efficiency eliminates
creativity.
Virtue = Competence
Main Question:
How can I be
good?
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Ages 13-24
(Adolescence)
Deals mostly with
understanding ‘who you
are’
Emphasis is placed on
relationships between
family, peers, and cliques
that define identity.
Virtue = Fidelity
Main Question:
Who am I and where am I
going?
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Ages 25-40
(Young Adulthood)
Deals with relational
intimacy as it relates
to vulnerability,
personal disclosure,
and willingness to
provide emotional
support.
Virtue = Love
Main Question:
Am I loved and wanted?
or
Shall I share my life
with someone or live
alone?
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Ages 45-65
(Middle Adulthood)
A shift of outlook and
worldview occurs,
usually from the selfcentered or family to
the community and
others.
Virtue = Care
Main Question:
Will I produce
something of real
value?
Integrity vs. Despair
Ages 65-Death
(Old Age)
Shift of perspective,
and a sense of
acceptance or a
fear of morality.
Virtue = Wisdom
Main Question:
Have I lived a full
life?
James Marcia and Identity States
Marcia expanded on Erikson’s Identity crisis.
He developed four states.
All adolescents will occupy one or more of these
states, at least temporarily.
Each state is determined by two factors:
Is the adolescent committed to an identity?
Is the individual searching for their true identity?
James Marcia and Identity States
Foreclosure – means that the
adolescent blindly accepts
the identity and values that
were given in childhood by
families and significant
others. The adolescent's
identity is foreclosed until
they determine for
themselves their true identity.
The adolescent in this state is
committed to an identity but
not as a result of their own
searching or crisis.
Diffusion – the state of
having no clear idea of ones
identity and making no
attempt to find that identity.
These adolescents may
have struggled to find their
identity, but they never
resolved it, and they seem
to have stopped trying.
There is no commitment
and no searching.
James Marcia and Identity States
Moratorium – adolescent
has acquired vague or illformed ideological and
occupational
commitments: he/she is
still undergoing the
identity search (Crisis).
They are beginning to
commit to an identity but
are still developing it.
Achievement – the state of
having developed welldefined personal values
and self-concepts. Their
identities may be
expanded and further
defined in adulthood, but
the basics are there. They
are committed to an
ideology and have a strong
sense of ego identity.
Erikson’s View On Media
 Erikson felt that the advent of adolescence occurs because the
advancement of technology places an extended period of time
between early education and specialized work.
 This gap created a stage where children weigh their genital
maturation and their uncertainty with their later adult roles in
life.
 This causes them to concern themselves with fads and society.
 “[adolescents] are preoccupied with what they appear to be in the
eyes of others as compared with what they feel they are, and
with the question of how to connect the roles and skills
cultivated earlier with the ideal prototypes of the day”
Questions?
o Does the media shape identity more now than in the previous
generations?
o What/who are the main factors/people that shape identity?
o Does the media hinder the youth of today from making the
necessary connections in the real world to form a complete
identity?
o Where does today’s society leave our adolescents in accordance
with Marcia’s four stages of identity?
Hypothesis
o I think that the media plays more into the development of identity than
it did in previous generations, particularly with society’s obsession
with celebrities and with the advent of social networking websites.
o I believe that famous people and superstars are the icons and role
models that the youth of today chose to form their identities around
rather than the generations before them, who chose people they
had ready access to or were more influential in moral ways, such as
a parent or grandparent or a religious or political leader.
o I also believe that the media hinders identity formation by preventing
youth from engaging in personal relationships with a superficial
online alter-ego of their peers.
o In this light I believe that many children are left with identity diffusion
and foreclosure, rather than using adolescence as a time of
moratorium to gain achievement.
Assumptions To Answer!
I believe more women will
answer the questionnaire
than men.
I believe that more students
from the catholic school will
answer the questionnaire.
I believe that there will be
more students that will cite
a media personality as an
influence than there will be
in the adult group.
I believe that more women
will be concerned will
marriage than men.
I believe that men will be
more concerned with
politics and careers than
women will be.
I believe that television and
movie stars will influence
more women.
I believe sports stars will
influence more men than
women.
Procedure For Me:
Take questionnaire to students.
Have students take questionnaire home to fill out
with their parent.
Pick up the completed questionnaire on a scheduled
date.
Analyze data into percentages.
ABSOLUTELY NO INTERACTION WITH THE
SUBJECTS.
Procedure For Subjects:
Take questionnaire home and have parent and student fill out consent form.
Questionnaire is set up with 86 questions all on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. (1
meaning NOT influential, and 5 meaning VERY influential.)
There are 80 people listed from 8 categories. (Sports figures, Bands, Family
and Friends, Religious figures, TV actors, Solo Recording Artists, Political
figures, and Movie Stars.)
They are to rate on the Likert scale, the amount of influence each of these
people have on them.
The parents must answer the questions from the age perspective of their
child.
Turn in questionnaire and consent forms.
RESULTS!!!
I received 68
usable
responses.
Of the students,
31 were female
and 8 were male.
39 students.
Of the parents,
24 were female
and 5 were male.
29 parents.
RESULTS!
Students
Age 40 – 1
Age 49 – 4
Age 42 – 1
Age 50 – 2
Grade 10 – 7
Age 44 – 1
Age 51 – 4
Grade 11 – 13
Age 45 – 1
Age 52 – 5
Age 46 – 1
Age 53 – 2
Age 47 – 1
Age 56 – 1
Age 48 – 3
Age 50s-60s – 1
Age 14 – 3
Age 15 – 6
Age 16 – 15
Age 17 – 10
Age 18 – 5
Parents
Grade 9 – 11
Grade 12 – 8
RESULTS!
Students
12 from Southlake, Tx
13 from Texas
El Paso, Grapevine,
Westlake, Bedford, Houston
New York, Canada, Florida,
Washington, Georgia, Utah,
South Carolina, Chicago.
Parents
10 from Texas (Southlake, El
Paso, Dallas, Houston)
Miami, Baton Rouge, Florida,
Alabama, California, L.A.,
New Orleans, Oklahoma,
Seattle, New York,
Shreveport, Pennsylvania,
Michigan, Ohio, Connecticut
Germany, Iran, Israel
RESULTS: Important Aspects
M-Stu
F-Stu
Stu
Total
M-Par
F-Par
Par
Total
Male
Total
Female
Total
34.48 % 46.15 % 38.18 %
SW
Mostly
Very
Career
48.39 % 50 %
Very
M-V
48.72 % 40 %
Very
SW M
33 %
SW
Marriag
e
48.39 % 50 %
Very
Mostly
43.59 % 80 %
Very
Very
66.67 % 68.97 % 46.15 % 56.36 %
Very
Very
Very
Very
Parents
80.65 % 50 %
Very
Very
74.36 % 80 %
Very
Very
58.33 % 62.07 % 61.53 % 70.9 %
Very
Very
Very
Very
Religion
58.06 % 37.5 % 48.72 % 60 %
Very
SW
Very
Very
37.5 %
Very
Politics
38.71 % 37.5 % 33.33 % 60 %
SW
N-R
SW
SW
29.17 % 27.59 % 30.76 % 30.9 %
NOT
SW
SW
SW
41.38 % 30.76 % 49.09 %
Very
Very
Very
Male
Female
Total
Sports
14 %
2.08%
4.14 %
Bands
12 %
7.5 %
8.28 %
• Family is the most important
influence on parents.
Family
40 %
44.17 % 43.45 %
Religious
10 %
8.75 %
8.97 %
• Sports is more influential to
men than women.
TV
2%
2.5 %
2.41 %
Artists
8%
3.75 %
4.48 %
• TV and movie stars are more
influential to women than men.
Politician
s
2%
2.08 %
2.07 %
Movies
2%
4.17 %
3.79 %
Other
-
3.75 %
3.10%
Parent
RESULTS!
• Religion is more influential on
women than men.
Male
Female
Total
Sports
8.75 %
1.94 %
3.33 %
Bands
22.5 %
5.81 %
6.67 %
• Family is the most important
influence on students! WOW!
Family
31.25 % 44.19 % 41.54 %
Religious
2.5 %
9.03 %
7.69 %
• Sports is more influential to
men than women.
TV
10 %
4.84 %
5.9 %
Artists
11.25 % 6.13 %
7.18 %
• TV and movie stars are more
influential to men than women.
Politician
s
1.25 %
3.23 %
2.82 %
Movies
20 %
5.81 %
8.72 %
Other
3.75 %
2.9 %
3.08 %
Student
RESULTS!
• Religion and Politics are more
influential on women than men.
Comparative
RESULTS!
Student
s
Parents
Sports
3.33 %
4.14 %
• Family is the most
important influence!
Bands
6.67 %
8.28 %
Family
41.54 %
43.45 %
• Movie and TV stars are
more influential to students
than their parents.
Religious
7.69 %
8.97 %
TV
5.9 %
2.41 %
Artists
7.18 %
4.48 %
• Sports, Bands, and
Religious leaders were more
influential than their
children.
Politician
s
2.82 %
2.07 %
Movies
8.72 %
3.79 %
Other
3.08 %
3.10 %
MOM = 79.41 %
DO PARENTS
MATTER?
YES! YES! YES!
YES! YES!
YES! YES! YES!
YES! YES!
YES!
YES!
Dad = 60.29 %
Best Friend = 55.88%
Grandmother = 47.05 %
Favorite Teacher = 35.29 %
Grandpa and Sis = 33.82 %
Brother = 32.35 %
Aunt = 26.47 %
Uncle = 22.05%
Was I right?
o I think that the media plays more into the development of identity than
it did in previous generations, particularly with society’s obsession
with celebrities and with the advent of social networking websites.
oYES AND NO!
o I believe that famous people and superstars are the icons and role
models that the youth of today chose to form their identities around
rather than the generations before them, who chose people they
had ready access to or were more influential in moral ways, such as
a parent or grandparent or a religious or political leader.
oNO!
Was I right?
o I also believe that the media hinders identity formation by preventing
youth from engaging in personal relationships with a superficial
online alter-ego of their peers.
oINCONCLUSIVE!
o In this light I believe that many children are left with identity diffusion
and foreclosure, rather than using adolescence as a time of
moratorium to gain achievement.
oINCONCLUSIVE!
How About My
Assumptions!
I believe more women will
answer the questionnaire than
men. RIGHT
I believe that more students
from the catholic school will
answer the questionnaire.
WRONG
I believe that there will be more
students that will cite a media
personality as an influence than
there will be in the adult group.
WRONG
I believe that more women will
be concerned will marriage
than men. RIGHT
I believe that men will be more
concerned with politics and
careers than women will be.
WRONG
I believe that television and
movie stars will influence more
women. RIGHT & WRONG
I believe sports stars will
influence more men than
women. RIGHT
I would like to be give it orally to
ensure clarity.
I would interact more and make the
questionnaire longer and more
probing.
I would want to track answers and
see how each parent matched up to
their own child. See if there is any
correlation.
More variation of SES.
More comparison of Private vs.
Public.
D a ?
o g
a
i
i n
t
Works Cited:
Crain, William (2011). Erikson and the Eight Stages of Life. In Jeff Marshall (Ed.),
Theories of Development {Concepts and Applications} (pp. 281-305). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Erikson, Erik H. (1963). Childhood and Society. New York City, NY: W. W. Norton &
Company, Inc.
Marcia, James (1993). Ego Identity: A Handbook for Psychosocial Research. New York
City, NY: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Cowie, Leslie. (2010, April 29). How Does Maintaining an Online Identity Affect
Adolescent Identity Formation? Retrieved from http://lcowie.wordpress.com/
2010/04/29/social-medias-influence-on-adolescent-identity/. (2011, Feb. 22)
Erikson, Erik H. (1968). The Life Cycle: Epigenesis of Identity. In Identity: Youth and
Crisis. New York City, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

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