pptx - Kyle Harms

Report
Lawrence R. Walker and his
Primary Succession Studies
Xuan Chen
BIOL 7083 - Community Ecology Presentation
http://kariecology.blogspot.com/2011/02/succession.html
Contents
• Introduction of L. R. Walker
• His primary succession studies
• His other research
• His influence on community ecology studies
Character Intro
Ph.D., University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1985
Stanford University
University of Hawaii
University of Puerto Rico
University of Nevada, professor of Department
of Biological Science
(1) Succession in plant communities
(2) Community responses to disturbance
(3) Restoration
http://sols.unlv.edu/Walker/LR%20Walker.htm
Contents
• Introduction of L. R. Walker
• His primary succession studies
• His other research
• His influence on succession studies
Primary Succession Studies
Succession – directional change in community composition at
a site, initiated by natural or anthropogenic disturbance, or the
creation of a new site.
Copy from Dr. Kyle Harms’ slides
Primary Succession Studies
Primary Succession Studies
Primary Succession Studies
Disturbance (new habitat)
Early
succession
species
Facilitate
Later
succession
species
Primary succession
Neutral
Inhibit
Secondary succession
Stable ecosystem
Primary Succession Studies
Primary succession can be defined as directional changes
in plant communities after severe disturbances that leave
no soil layers intact, or the creation of a new site.
Methods
(1) Field observations and experiments (such as artificial fertilization,
transplanting and sowing of seeds)
(2) Growth experiments under more controlled greenhouse conditions
(3) Lab analyses of plant and soil nutrients
Primary Succession Studies
• Primary succession: nitrogen limited
• Later, P (and/or other elements) but not
nitrogen limited
Walker & Syers, 1976, Geoderma
Primary Succession Studies
River floodplains in Alaska
Landslides in Puerto Rico
http://www.journalofecology.org/view/0/edchoice983.html
http://ecolibrary.org/page/dp430
science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/swan/vs/repeat_photo
http://news.lternet.edu/images/taiga-floodplain-tanana-river-alaska
Glacial moraines in Alaska
Volcanic substrates in Hawaii
Primary Succession Studies
River floodplains in Alaska
Landslides in Puerto Rico
http://www.journalofecology.org/view/0/edchoice983
http://ecolibrary.org/page/dp430
science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/swan/vs/repeat_photo
http://news.lternet.edu/images/taiga-floodplain-tanana-river-alaska
Glacial moraines in Alaska
Volcanic substrates in Hawaii
Walker et al., 1986, Ecology
Stochastic events
Fluvial processes,
timing, intensity, and
scale of riverine
disturbance
Life history traits
Seed rain
Low seed rain
High seed rain
Walker et al., 1986, Ecology
Life history traits
Stochastic events
Fluvial processes,
timing, intensity, and
scale of riverine
disturbance
Growth rate
Seed rain
Life span
Walker et al., 1986, Ecology
Primary succession:
nitrogen limited, need
nitrogen fixer
Inhibit
Nitrogen fixer
Dense litter layer
Seeding germination and establishment
Snowshoe hare
Seeding mortality
Thick stands
Reduced light intensity
Root competition
Seeding growth
Allelopathy
Primary Succession Studies
Inhibit
River floodplains in Alaska
Landslides in Puerto Rico
http://www.journalofecology.org/view/0/edchoice983.html
http://ecolibrary.org/page/dp430
science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/swan/vs/repeat_photo
http://news.lternet.edu/images/taiga-floodplain-tanana-river-alaska
Glacial moraines in Alaska
Volcanic substrates in Hawaii
spruce
alder
Dryas
Seed dispersal
Dryas
alder
spruce
• Shade out
• Herbivores and
pathogens
• Allelopathy
spruce
alder
Dryas
Chapin et al., 1994, Ecological Monographs
• Life history
• Species interaction
• Environmental factors
their relative importance changes through succession
Primary Succession Studies
Inhibit
River floodplains in Alaska
Landslides in Puerto Rico
http://www.journalofecology.org/view/0/edchoice983.html
http://ecolibrary.org/page/dp430
science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/swan/vs/repeat_photo
http://news.lternet.edu/images/taiga-floodplain-tanana-river-alaska
Complex
Glacial moraines in Alaska
Volcanic substrates in Hawaii
Upper zone: nearly
complete removal of
soil and vegetation
Islands
Lower zone:
heterogeneous
mixture of broken
plants parts, and soil
•
•
•
•
Elevation
Size
Land use history
Surrounding
vegetation
• Soil development
• Biotic interaction
Locally
Regionally
Stochastic
Predictable
Primary Succession Studies
Inhibit
River floodplains in Alaska
Complex
Glacial moraines in Alaska
Scale
Landslides in Puerto Rico
http://www.journalofecology.org/view/0/edchoice983.html
http://ecolibrary.org/page/dp430
science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/swan/vs/repeat_photo
http://news.lternet.edu/images/taiga-floodplain-tanana-river-alaska
Volcanic substrates in Hawaii
Myrica faya
Metrosideros polymorpha
Myrica faya
Myrica faya
nitrogen
canopy
germination
Leaf litter
Metrosideros polymorpha
seedling
root
competition
Pioneer species
severe
Later species
facilitate
compete
environmental severity
suitable
compete
facilitate
Pioneer species
Later species
facilitate
inhibit
environmental severity / succession stages
Opportunities for studies of succession
http://www.mass.gov/dcr/watersupply/watershed/biodiversity.htm
http://www.mass.gov/dcr/watersupply/watershed/biodiversity.htm
http://www.flickr.com/photos/bpamerica/5145807500/sizes/m/in/photostream/
We can imagine a study that investigates succession after invasion of a non-native as a result
of climate change that might be used to suggest restoration measures to protect local
biodiversity
Contents
• Introduction of L. R. Walker
• His primary succession studies
• His other research
• His influence on succession studies
(1) Chronosequences study
succession
Long term without disturbance
succession
Long term without disturbance
Decline phase
significant reduction in ecosystem
productivity and standing plant biomass
Later, P (and/or other
elements) but not
nitrogen limited
Wardle et al., 2004, Science
biomass
herbaceous
richness
tree
(2) Restoration
Site amelioration
Development of community structure
Nutrient dynamics
Succession
Restoration
Species life history traits
Species interactions
Modeling the transitions between successional
stages and how those stages fit together into
trajectories
Clarify successional processes
Succession
Restoration
Improve the predictability of succession
(3) Invasive ecology
(4) Hurricane ecology
……
Contents
• Introduction of L. R. Walker
• His primary succession studies
• His other research
• His influence on succession studies
• Primary succession is complex
• Study methods
• Restoration
Thank you
http://mrswolfgang.wikispaces.com/Peace+Neal+-+Ecological+Succession
References
•
Bellingham, P.J., Peltzer, D.A., Lawrence R. Walker, L. R. 2005. Contrasting impacts of a native and an invasive exotic shrub on flood-plain succession. Journal of Vegetation Science 16 (1):
135-142.
•
•
•
•
•
Callaway, R.M. and L.R. Walker. 1997. Competition and facilitation: A synthetic approach to interactions in plant communities. Ecology 78:1958-1965.
•
Prach, K., Walker, L R. 2011. Four opportunities for studies of ecological succession. Trends in Ecological and Evolution 26 (3): 119-123.
•
Shiels, A.B., Walker, L.R. 2003. Bird perches increase forest seeds on Puerto Rican landslides. Restoration Ecology 11: 1-9.
•
Vitousek, P.M., Walker, L.R. 1989. Biological invasion by Myrica faya in Hawaii: Plant demography, nitrogen fixation, and ecosystem effects. Ecological Monographs 59:247- 265.
•
Vitousek, P.M., Walker, L.R., Whiteaker, L.D. 1993. Nutrient Limitations to plant-growth during primary succession in Hawaii-volcanos National Park. Biogeochemistry 23 (3): 197-215.
•
Vitousek, P.M., Walker, L.R., Whiteaker, L.D., Muellerdombois, D., Matson P.A. 1987. Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii. Science 238 (4282):802804.
•
Walker, L. R., Chapin, III. F. S. 1986. Physiological controls over seedling growth in primary succession on an Alaskan floodplain. Ecology 67: 1508 1523.
•
Walker, L.R., del Moral, R.2009. Lessons from primary succession for restoration of severely damaged habitats. Applied Vegetation Science 12: 55-67.
•
Walker, L.R., Bellingham, P.B., Peltzer, D.A. 2006. Plant characteristics are poor predictors of microsite colonization during the first two years of primary succession. Journal of Vegetation
Science 17:397-406.
Chapin, F.S., Walker, L.R., Fastie, C.L., Sharman, L.C. 1994. Mechanisms of Primary Succession Following Deglaciation at Glacier Bay, Alaska. Ecological Monographs 64:149–175.
Myster, R.W., Walker, L R. 1997. Plant successional pathways on Puerto Rican landslides. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13 (2): 165-173.
Walker, L.R., Clarkson, B.D., Silvester, W., Clarkson, B.R. 2003. Colonization dynamics and facilitative impacts of a nitrogen-fixing shrub in post-volcanic primary succession. Journal of
Vegetation Science 14: 277-290.
Walker, L. R., Zasada, J. C., Chapin, III. F. S. 1986. The role of life history processes in primary succession on an Alaskan floodplain. Ecology 67: 1243 1253.
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Walker, L.R., Zimmerman, J.K., Lodge, D.J., Guzmán-Grajales, S. 1996. An altitudinal comparison of growth and species composition in hurricane-damaged forests in Puerto Rico. Journal of
Ecology 84: 877-889.
Walker, L.R., Voltzow, J., Ackerman, J.D., Fernandez, D.S., Fetcher, N. 1992. Immediate impact of Hurricane Hugo on a Puerto Rican rain forest. Ecology 73:691-694.
Walker, L.R., Zarin, D., Fetcher, N., Myster, R., Johnson, A. 1996. Ecosystem development and plant succession on landslides in the Caribbean. Biotropica 28: 566-576.
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Wardle, D., Walker, L.R., Bardgett, R.D. 2004. Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long term chronosequences. Science 305:509-513.

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