Biofeedback2012 - Family Integration Counseling

Report
BIOFEEDBACK IN A CLINICAL
SETTING
IMPLICATION FOR
POLYGRAPHY
Biofeedback

What is Biofeedback?
 Biofeedback
is the use technology to identify, modify
and control one’s biology, emotions and thoughts

Types of Biofeedback
 Neurofeedback
(qEEG)
 Symptom specific (pelvic floor dysfunction, etc.)
 Autonomic Nervous System activity control
 Cognitive/Emotional Regulation
 Polygraph
Advantages of Each

Neurofeedback
 Requires
expensive equipment and extensive training
 Target specific neurological deficits
 Identifies areas of deficit in Brodmann areas
 Map of areas of low and high activity determine
treatment
 Under activated areas can be stimulated for additional
activity
 Areas of over activity are balances by activation of
inhibitory systems
Brodmann Areas
EEG Neurofeedback
Types of Biofeedback

Symptom Specific Treatment
 Requires
expensive equipment and extensive training
 Typically carried out in a medical setting
 Target symptoms that are treatable without medication
 Teach clients to self treat outside the practitioners office
 Develops independence from regular medical
intervention
Types of Biofeedback

Autonomic Nervous System Activity
 Uses
a variety of equipment (ranging in price)
 Treats systemic medical issues
 Target symptoms that are treatable without medication
 Teach clients to self treat outside the practitioners office
 Develops independence from regular medical
intervention
Pelvic Floor Feedback
Types of Biofeedback

Cognitive/Emotional Regulation
 Uses
equipment that of varying price (typically
inexpensive)
 Can be effectively used by practitioners with very little
training
 Can be used by clients remotely (home, work, travel)
 Effectively regulates the body, causing changes in the
internal state
Types of Biofeedback

Polygraph
 Uses
expensive equipment
 Requires extensive training
 Only clinical use is to break down denial
 Should NOT include any type of emotional
management by the client
 Passive response
Polygraph
UNDERSTANDING THE
BODY AND BRAIN
Understanding the Body and Brain
A brain in your hand…




Or just try the clenched fist method
Wrist and arm is spinal column,
thumb becomes limbic system,
and fingers and back of hand become cerebrum.
The entire system is held together tightly.
The cerebrum, the outer part, is divided up into lobes.
Frontal Lobes
 Planning, thinking
 Rational and executive control
center
 Monitor higher order thinking
 Direct problem solving

“Regulates the excesses of
the emotional system”
 “Self-Will” area – our
personality – trauma here can
cause permanent and dramatic
changes in personality.
 Time/sequence
 Spirituality
Courtesy of Drew Caesar
www.about-healing.com
•
•
Limbic - so called “old
mammalian brain”–
emotions, desires, fight,
flight, or freeze
Includes many parts of
the brain – thalamus,
hypothalamus, corpus
callosum, amygdala,
hippocampus, pituitary
gland, olfactory nerves.
Courtesy of Drew Caesar
www.about-healing.com
Hippocampus
Hippocampus (Greek for “seahorse” because of shape)

Plays significant role in consolidating learning converts information from
working memory to long term storage which may take days or months
(think tx. concepts)
 checks information from working memory and compares to stored
experiences – essential for creating meaning
 Damage to it means that
memory doesn’t go into long
term storage.
 Some evidence says that it
plays a role in remembering
facts, objects, and places but
not much of a role in recall of
long term personal memories
(Lieberman, 2005)
Courtesy of Drew Caesar
www.about-healing.com
Amygdala
Amygdala (Greek for “Almond”)
Found at the end of the hippocampus
 Involved in emotions – especially fear and threat and
assessment of threat
 Connected with organisms survival behaviors, flight, fight,
freeze, mate, eat
 Some evidence to indicate it
attaches emotions to memories
tagged for long term storage.
The Lizard Brain
Brain Stem – So called,
reptilian brain, resembles the
entire brain of reptile
Of the twelve nerves that go to
the brain from the body,
eleven end in the brain stem.
Consists in part of the Medulla
oblongata – heart rate,
breathing – body
temperature, digestion
monitored and controlled.
 Houses the Reticular
Activating System (RAS)
responsible for brains
alertness

Courtesy of Drew Caesar
www.about-healing.com
Selecting Appropriate Clients

Disorders

 PTSD
 Highly
aroused
 Depersonalized
 Reactive
 Anxiety
 General
 Panic
Traumatized Clients
Attacks
 Dissociative
Disorders
 Depressive Disorder
NOS




Substance Abuse
Sexual Arousal
Disorder
Impulse Control
Antisocial / CD
Inappropriate Clients
Don’t Train Biofeedback
 Previous Use of
Countermeasures
 Previous deceptive
with denial
Don’t Polygraph
 Uncontrolled Anxiety
 Dissociative
 Reactive/Victims
 Clients some
drugs/medication
The Technology

emWave

Iom (Wild Divine)
Reading

HRV
 Looks
at the rhythm of
your heart
 Emotions change the
variability of signals
 Goal is to gain
Coherence

GSR
 An
indication of mental
activity
 More thought = higher
perspiration
 Less thought = lower
perspiration
 Perspiration =
electrical conductance
emWave Desktop
Fear Reactions

Fear triggers initiate a reaction in the autonomic
nervous system including:
 Hypertension
 Perspiration
 Involuntary
muscle movement
 Increase in GSR
 Increase in rapid breathing
Techniques

Mindfulness
 Decrease
galvanic skin
response
 Decrease stress
response

Quick Coherence
 Change
in heart rate
variability
 Decreased cortisol
production
 Increases in attention,
clarity
Classic Systematic Desensitization
Pendulation

Emersion
 Use
basic visualization
of disturbing content
 Illicit negative emotions
 Notice sensory
stimulation

Stabilization
 Obtain
stable
physiological response
 Useful with emWave
and Wild Divine
No Nos


Biofeedback should
not be used as a minipolygraph
Don’t give specific
questions
 Do
deal with the big
concepts
 “Let’s talk about the
feelings that come up
with family”
POLYGRAPH AND
COUNTERMEASURES
Demonstration
Containment Model
Criminal Justice System
Community
Members
Sex Offense
Specific Treatment
Polygraph
Examiner
Types of Clinical Polygraphs

Specific Issue
 Addresses

offender denial
Sexual History Disclosure
 Treatment
Planning
 Risk Prediction

Maintenance / Monitoring
How Does the Polygraph Work?
I can’t
control my
autonomic
nervous
system!!

It activates the “Flight or Fight” response
in humans and measures.
 1.
Heart Rate
 2.
Certain Respiration Patterns
 3.
Galvanic Skin Response (the
skin’s resistance to electricity)
 4.
Blood Pressure
These measures are associated
with deception and are not
themselves measures of lying.

1. Pre-Test








2. In-Test






Sign release and consent forms
Review medical conditions
Explain purpose of exam
Review equipment
Review terminology
Develop final questions
Calibrate instrument
No trick questions
2-4 relevant questions tucked inside 10-20
comparison questions
Relevant questions must be specific
Run 3 sets of charts
Score and interpret chart markings (pen
tracings)
3. Post Test

Conducting an indepth interview with
examinee, giving him/her an opportunity to
explain deceptive findings
Use of Polygraph in Offense Specific
Treatment
Types of Polygraph
 preconviction

specific issue
 postconviction
 specific
issue
 sexual history
 maintenance
Benefits of Polygraph
 significantly
increases
disclosure
 resolve discrepancy
between victim’s and
offender’s statements
 ascertain limits of
abusive behavior
 deter further acting out
 more accurate than
clinical judgement
You Play A Role In
Polygraph Exam Accuracy

“The Offender must believe in the
ability of the lie-catcher.”
Ekman, 1995


Examiners are trained to induce
detection apprehension.
You, too, can induce detection!

Make consequences for not passing clear.

Focus on telling the truth.

Make it very clear that YOU believe in the
exam and will act on its results.
Can You Fool the Polygraph?
Countermeasures fall into several
categories:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Physical-coughing, moving, biting tongue
Mental- relaxation techniques
Chemical-drugs, deodorant on palms
Behavioral-directed toward examiner:
stories of woe, demanding specific wording
Examiners are trained to detect and deflect countermeasures.
Summary: Polygraph 101
Polygraph Technology greatly
enhances our ability to determine
truthfulness and deception, but
the real focus is developing truthfulness
and honesty as life habits. “Passing
the polygraph” is a distraction
from the real issue: Success
is a lifelong commitment to living
without secrets
and lies.
English, Jones, in process, 2001
No Use of Biofeedback
Polygraph and emWave



Decreases total amplitude of response of all the
physiological reactions
Differences between reactions on the control and
the relevant questions were still seen
Polygraph on a client with emWave training is valid
Polygraph and Wild Divine



Slowed breathing (3-4) breaths per 25 seconds is a
sign of breathing control
Uncontrolled breathing should be 5-6 breaths per
25 seconds
Blood pressure changes without movement may be
a sign of countermeasures.
Using Biofeedback (emWave)
What is this and why does it matter?

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