Principles of Baking

Principles of Baking
Different Ingredients have specific
• Flour- provides protein and starch
– This forms the structure of baked goods
• Liquids- aid flour to form structure of baked
product. Also aids other ingredients in
chemical process that occur
– Water, milk, fruit or vegetable juice, yogurt, and
sour cream
Ingredient functions
• Leavening agents
– Baking powder- makes products rise by causing air
or gas to be trapped in the mixture. It this didn’t
happen, products would be flat.
• Fats and oils make products rich and tender,
they also add flavor and help to brown the
• Sweeteners- like sugar give flavor and help
crust to brown.
Ingredient functions
• Eggs make baked products tender, add flavor
and richness, and can help bind mixtures
– Beaten egg whites may be used as a leavening
• Flavorings- chocolate, spices, herbs, and
extracts such as vanilla and almond
Dough, Batter, and Gluten
• Dough- thick enough to be shaped by hand or cut
into shapes (biscuits and cookies)
• Batter- thin enough to be poured or dropped
from a spoon (pancakes and MUFFINS)
• 2 reasons for mixing ingredients as recipe states:
– Distribute ingredients evenly
– Develop gluten (elastic substance formed by the
protein in flour) which forms structure to products
• The more you mix the stronger gluten is formed
How leavening agents work
• Add air or another gas to the product, helping
it rise
– Trapped air
– Steam
– Chemical leavening- 2 types
• Baking soda
• Baking powder
• They are not the same thing!
Baking soda
• Forms carbon dioxide gas when it’s combined
with an acid.
– Acids could include buttermilk, yogurt, and citrus
Baking Powder
• Combination of baking soda and a dry acid
– Forms carbon dioxide when mixed with any liquid
– The recipe doesn’t need to have an acid added
– You can make baking powder from baking soda by
adding 2 parts cream of tartar to 1 part baking
Plan the lab tomorrow
• Assign tasks and roles for blueberry muffins
• Tomorrow you will have the class period to
make muffins
• This is a 1 day lab
• Use time wisely
Muffin Method
On your own~
• Read pages 344-347 from the section of
“Successful Baking” to the end of this chapter
• Then answer the questions 1-5 on page 347
Making Yeast breads
Review It
• DFN pg. 357 (1-6)

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