### TERRESTRIAL SURVEYING

```TERRESTRIAL
SURVEYING
Department of «Geodesy and
Geoinformatics» Tajik Agrarian
University
named after Sh. Shotemur
Firdavs Kukanov
• Objective
The purpose of this lesson is that such
a terrestrial surveying, how and why it is
held. Students need to know about the
type of terrestrial surveying, terrestrial
instruments used for surveying
Outline
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•
•
•
Introdaction
Measurements
Equipment used
 Introduction
• Terrestrial surveying is also referred
to as field or ground-based surveying.
It can be defined as the art and
science of taking measurements on
or near the surface of the earth. Data
acquisition is based on the collection
of geospatial data.
 Measurements
Measurements are collected using equipment at
ground level of obtain the position an object.
Terrestrial surveying techniques involve the
measurement of :
Distance
Angle
Azimuth
Height
 Equipment used
Electronic Distance Meter (EDM)
Theodolite
 Leveling
Total station
 Electronic Distance Meter (EDM)
 Theodolite
• Theodolite - measuring instrument for determining
direction and measuring the horizontal and vertical
angles when surveying, topographic, and geodetic
surveying, construction. The main measure of labor
in the theodolite are the limbs of degree and minute
Theodolite
 Leveling
• Level (from Fr. Niveau - level, level) - a geodetic
instrument (Equipment) for the leveling, that is,
determining the difference in elevation between the
several points of the earth's surface relative to the
conventional level ie the definition of excess.
 Level
 Total station
• A total station is an electronic/optical instrument
used in modern surveying. The total station is an
electronic theodolite (transit) integrated with an
electronic distance meter (EDM) to read slope
distances from the instrument to a particular
point.[1]
• Robotic total stations allow the operator to
control the instrument from a distance via
remote control. This eliminates the need for an
assistant staff member as the operator holds the
reflector and controls the total station from the
observed point.
•
Total station
GPS
• - the Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite
navigation system that provides location and time information
in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is
an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It
is maintained by the United States government and is freely
accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.
• The GPS program provides critical capabilities to military, civil
and commercial users around the world. In addition, GPS is
the backbone for modernizing the global air traffic system.
• The GPS project was developed in 1973 to overcome the
limitations of previous navigation systems,[1] integrating ideas
from several predecessors, including a number of classified
engineering design studies from the 1960s. GPS was created
and realized by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and
was originally run with 24 satellites. It became fully
operational in 1994