The Backbone Essential for Collective Impact

Report
Collective Impact:
Backbone Organizations
Session for:
CMF / MNA Conference
October 8, 2012
Boston | Geneva | Mumbai | San Francisco | Seattle | Washington
FSG.ORG
FSG Overview
FSG.ORG
FSG Overview
• Nonprofit consulting firm specializing in strategy,
evaluation and research with offices in Boston, Seattle,
San Francisco, DC, Geneva, and Mumbai
• Partner with foundations, corporations, nonprofits, and
governments to develop more effective solutions to the
world’s most challenging issues
• Recognized thought leader in social impact,
philanthropy and corporate social responsibility
• Staff of 100 full-time professionals with passion and
experience to solve social problems
• Advancing Collective Impact via publications,
conferences, speaking engagements, client projects
2
© 2012 FSG
FSG and Collective Impact
FSG.ORG
FSG Is Playing a Leadership Role in Accelerating Collective
Impact Approaches to Solving Large-Scale Social Problems
•
Client work in Collective Impact: FSG understands how to
enable and sustain cross-sector partnerships through our work
with clients in the following sectors:
‒ Economic development
‒ Education reform
‒ Environmental sustainability
‒ Juvenile justice
‒ Teen substance abuse
‒ Public health
•
FSG articles paved the way for Collective Impact:
‒ Leading Boldly (2004)
‒ Breakthroughs in Shared Measurement (2008)
‒ Catalytic Philanthropy (2009)
‒ Collective Impact (2011)
‒ Channeling Change: Making Collective Impact Work (2012)
3
© 2012 FSG
Introduction to Collective Impact
FSG.ORG
There Are Several Types of Problems
Simple
Complicated
Complex
Baking a Cake
Sending a Rocket to the
Moon
Raising a Child
The social sector often treats problems as simple or complicated
4
Source: Adapted from “Getting to Maybe”
© 2012 FSG
Introduction to Collective Impact
FSG.ORG
Traditional Approaches Are Not Solving Our
Toughest—Often Complex—Challenges
• Funders select individual grantees
• Organizations work separately and compete
Isolated
Impact
• Evaluation attempts to isolate a particular
organization’s impact
• Large scale change is assumed to depend on
scaling organizations
• Corporate and government sectors are often
disconnected from foundations and nonprofits
5
Source: Channeling Change: Making Collective Impact Work, 2012; FSG Interviews and Analysis
© 2012 FSG
Introduction to Collective Impact
FSG.ORG
Imagine a Different Approach—Multiple Players Working
Together to Solve Complex Issues
• All working toward the same goal and measuring the same things
• Cross-sector alignment with government, nonprofit, philanthropic, and
corporate sectors as partners
• Organizations actively coordinating their action and sharing lessons learned
Isolated Impact
Collective Impact
Collective Impact recognizes that no single organization is responsible for a
major social problem, so no single organization can cure it
6
Source: Channeling Change: Making Collective Impact Work, 2012; FSG Interviews and Analysis
© 2012 FSG
Five Elements of Collective Impact
FSG.ORG
Achieving Large-Scale Change through Collective
Impact Involves Five Key Elements
1
•
•
Common understanding of the problem
Shared vision for change
•
•
•
Collecting data and measuring results
Focus on performance management
Shared accountability
Mutually Reinforcing
Activities
•
•
Differentiated approaches
Coordination through joint plan of action
Continuous
Communication
•
•
Consistent and open communication
Focus on building trust
•
•
Separate organization(s) with staff
Resources and skills to convene and coordinate
participating organizations
Common Agenda
2
Shared Measurement
3
4
5
Backbone Support
7
Source: Channeling Change: Making Collective Impact Work, 2012; FSG Interviews and Analysis
© 2012 FSG
CI across Issue Areas
FSG.ORG
The Collective Impact Approach Can Apply to Solving
Many Complex Social Issues
Homelessness
Health
Education
*
Economic Development
Youth Development
*
Community Development
*
*
8
* Indicates FSG Client
© 2012 FSG
Implementing Collective Impact
FSG.ORG
Collective Impact Is Best Structured with Cascading Levels of
Collaboration, with the Backbone Playing a Critical Role
Common Agenda
Shared Measures
Steering
Committee
Backbone
Governance,
Vision and Strategy
Working Groups
Action Planning
Partners
Implementation
Community Members
Public Will
9
Source: FSG Interviews and Analysis
© 2012 FSG
Key Learning
FSG.ORG
It Is Not Always Easy to See the Value of Backbone
Organizations’ Work
The Role of Backbone Organizations Is Often Described with a Metaphor…
• “(They are) kind of like the quarterback—doesn’t end up in the end zone, but
they’re the ones handing it off, making a pass or calling a different play if the
defense looks different.”
• “I’m at a lot of events with people in the know who don’t understand what these
backbones do. But they are doing what they are supposed to do—the work
behind the scenes. They both fill a role that, if it weren’t for them, no one
would be pushing certain items.”
• “They are an umbrella that can say, ‘this is an issue, let’s address it together.’”
• “They serve as the voice for early care and education and bringing issues to
the tables to funders that may not otherwise be heard.”
• “(The backbone) has also formed a bridge between early childhood agencies,
corporate leaders, and funders.”
Source: FSG interviews
10
© 2012 FSG
FSG.ORG
Theory of Change
Effective Backbone Organization Leadership Is Critical
to Collective Impact Success
Why we collectively
are taking
action
(Needs /
Assumptions and
Goals)
Early indications
that our activities
will lead to change
(Backbone
Outcomes)
What we are doing
to address the
issue
(Activities)
The change we
collectively hope to
see if we are
successful
(Initiative
Outcomes)
Guide Vision
Support Alignment
Isolated Impact
Shared Measurement
Partners
Build Public Will
Initiative
Advance Policy
Community
Mobilize Funding
11
© 2012 FSG
Backbone Organizations
FSG.ORG
Backbone Organizations Come in a Variety of Types
Types of Organizations That Could Serve as Backbones
Funders
Government
Agencies and
Other
Intermediaries
New or Existing
Non-Profits
Private Sector
MultiOrganization
Initiatives
Core Requirements to be a Successful Backbone Organization*
Strong and Adaptive
Leadership
Sustained Funding and
Resources
High Credibility in the
Community
Dedicated Staff
Ability to Be a Neutral
Convener
* These skills can exist within a single organization or within another organization in the effort
Source: Channeling Change: Making Collective Impact Work, 2012; FSG Interviews and Analysis
12
© 2012 FSG
Backbone Organizations
FSG.ORG
Backbone Organizations Are Critical to Any Collective
Impact Effort—And They Perform Six Major Functions
Guide Vision and Strategy
Support Aligned
Activities
Establish Shared
Measurement Practices
Build Public Will
Advance Policy
Mobilize Funding
• Build a common understanding of the problem
• Provide strategic guidance to develop a common agenda
• Convene key external stakeholders to do mutually reinforcing activities
• Facilitate communication and collaboration
• Catalyze or incubate new initiatives
• Collect, analyze, interpret, and report data
• Catalyze or develop shared measurement systems
• Provide technical assistance for building partners’ data capacity
• Build public will, consensus, and commitment
• Create a sense of urgency and articulate a call to action
• Support community member engagement activities
• Advocate for an aligned policy agenda
• Mobilize and align both public and private funding to support goals
Backbones must balance the tension between coordinating and maintaining
accountability, while staying behind the scenes to establish collective ownership
13
Source: FSG Interviews and Analysis
© 2012 FSG
FSG.ORG
Key Learning
Among Different Backbone Organizations,
Organization-Specific Challenges Add Nuance
Among the backbone organizations…
Phase of Collective
Impact Initiative
Phase I
Initiate Action
Phase II
Organize
for Impact
Phase III
Sustain Action &
Impact
$$$
Organizational Capacity
Scope of the Vision and
Strategy and / or
Geographic Reach
Vs.
Organizational Structure/
Parent Organizations
14
© 2012 FSG
Backbone Organizations
FSG.ORG
Backbones Typically Require At Least Three Key Staff
Positions
Illustration of a Backbone Structure:
Project Director
Leadership
• Oversees effort
• Advises Steering
Committee
Planning
Embracing Change
Teamwork
Facilitator(s)
• Manages accountability
• Manages working
groups/networks
• Reports data
• Shares data for use
• Connects working
groups/networks
• Addresses complex
issues
• Addresses complex
issues
• Addresses complex
issues
• Leads vision, goal,
strategy setting
• Plans data collection,
data sharing
• Aligns partners to
implement
• Champions change at
senior level
• Provides data to help
change occur
• Champions change in
groups
• Listens, reinforces
senior collaboration
• Partners with data
providers
• Helps community
partners align
Communication
Critical Thinking
Data Manager
15
Source: Adapted from Strive Network
© 2012 FSG
Backbone Organizations
FSG.ORG
Every Backbone Needs Funding for its Activities; a Backbone
Organization Likely Requires an Annual Budget of ~$3-400K
Illustration of a Backbone’s Budget:
Expense Category
Budget ($)
Salaries
80,000
1 FTE Executive Director
55,000
1 FTE Facilitator
65,000
1 FTE Data Manager
25,000
.5 FTE Administrative Support
Benefits
45,000
At 20% of salaries
Professional Fees
90,000
Consultants, R&E, Web
Travel and Meetings
16,000
Workshops, events, retreat
Communications
45,000
Reports, collateral, media
Technology
0
Office
3,650
In kind/paid rent, utilities, supplies
Other
1,000
Staff training, miscellaneous
425,650
Covered by grants and fees
Total Expenses
Description
In kind hardware, software, IT
16
Source: Adapted from Strive Network
© 2012 FSG
Key Learning
FSG.ORG
Effective Backbone Leaders Share Common
Characteristics
Stakeholders describe backbone organization leaders as:
Visionary
Results-Oriented
Collaborative, Relationship Builder
Focused, but Adaptive
Charismatic and Influential Communicator
Politic
Humble
“Someone who has a big picture perspective—[who] understands
how the pieces fit together, is sensitive to the dynamics, and is
energetic and passionate.”
Source: FSG interviews
17
© 2012 FSG
Group Discussion
FSG.ORG
In Small Groups, We Will Discuss the Collective Impact
Model and the Role of the Backbone Organization
Discussion Questions
•
What do you see as the benefits to the community in taking a collective impact
approach?
•
In your table’s topic area, what challenges exist that prevent the community from
being able to make progress in this area?
•
What role does the backbone organization play in advancing work in this topic
area?
•
What should happen next? Given your role in the sector, how do you participate?
18
© 2012 FSG
FSG.ORG
Thank You!
To talk more with FSG about Collective Impact:
• John Kania
• [email protected]
Collective Impact resources available on FSG’s website:
http://fsg.org/KnowledgeExchange/FSGApproach/CollectiveImpact.aspx
19
© 2012 FSG

similar documents