TRANSFORMING THE INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN LITERACY TEACHERS, ELL TEACHERS, AND CLASSROOM TEACHERS LRA Conference December 2013 Dr. Kena Avila Linfield College [email protected] BIG IDEA ELL students need their teachers to weave together language, literacy, and content by advocating for time to engage in effective and productive collaboration with an awareness that challenges the dominant discourses that isolate teachers of ELLs. GOALS & AGENDA Goals • Reflect on the discourses that represent and enforce isolated identities. • Share models of collaboration between ELL specialists, classroom teachers, and Title 1 teachers. • Define idealistic versus complex views of collaboration. • Identify issues of power in scheduling and time. Agenda • Introduction • The Problem & Its Result • Isolation of Teachers of ELLs • Group TicTacToe (Creeese) • The Need for Time • The Need for Collaboration • 3 words on Collaboration • The Need for Awareness • Just what is Bi-Discoursal anyway? • Conclusion DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS In one decade 1998-99 to 2008-09 the ELL population increased by 51% compared to the total K-12 population which grew only 7.2%. 12% of the population was foreign born and 20% spoke a language other than English Over 70% of English learners in our schools were born in the US; that is, they are second- or third-generation immigrants. EDUC 340 SIOP Ch. 1 Introduction BACKGROUND ON ENGLISH LEARNING Demographic Trends The states with the fastest-growing limited English proficient student populations are: North Carolina Colorado Nevada Nebraska Oregon Georgia Indiana ALL HAD 200% increases between 1993-2003. EDUC 340 SIOP Ch. 1 Introduction ACHIEVEMENT GAPS 71% of ELLs in 4th grade scored Below Basic on NAEP Reading 2009 ¾ of 8th grade ELLs scored Below Basic on NAEP Reading and Math 2009 43% of ELLs in 4th grade scored Below Basic on NAEP Math 2009 EDUC 340 SIOP Ch. 1 Introduction The Six Blind Men and the Elephant What are the parts of the elephant for ELL students? Isolated Identities (Discourse) Need for Collaboration • Move from Idealistic to Complex View • Respond to alignment of CCSS & ELPA-21 Need for Time • Framework for Collaboration • Structured Institutionalized Schedules Need for Awareness • Macro Issues of Power and Status • Bidiscoursal Perspectives ELLS HAVE MULTIPLE TEACHERS THROUGHOUT THEIR DAY ELL Specialists Classroom Teachers Title 1 Teachers 2 teachers from School A 2teachers from School A 2teachers from School A 2 teachers from School B 2 teachers from School B 2 teachers from School B METHODS AND DATA SOURCES Qualitative Design Approach = transcribed interviews, field notes, and transcription of focus groups. Grounded Theory: An inductive method that examined the themes that emerged from teachers’ experiences, insights, and viewpoints (Clarke, 2005). Phase I 12 Interviews Phase II 12 Observations Phase III 2 Focus Groups ANALYSIS Discourse Analysis: • Gee (2011) • Context as a Reflexive Tool • “Speech creates or shapes (possibly manipulates) the context.” Situational Analysis • Clarke (2011) • Multiple mapping and saturation of data THE ISOLATION OF TEACHERS OF ELLS ELL Specialist •"Our role is to teach the functions of language." Classroom Teacher •"I don't have to worry about the language development .. that's not really my job." Title 1 Teacher •"Primarily, what I'm doing is teaching kids how to read." CREESE TIC-TAC-TOE Robert Linquanti, 2012, Project Director for EL Evaluation WestED THE NEED FOR COLLABORATION “The theory of action embedded in the Framework to first cross before acquiring the CCSS and NGSS, but as partner standards articulating practices, knowledge, and skills students need to have to access the CCSS and NGSS” (Council of Chief State School Officers et al., 2012). ELPA-21 BIG IDEA ELL students need their teachers to weave together language, literacy, and content by advocating for time to engage in effective and productive collaboration with an awareness that challenges the dominant discourses that isolate teachers of ELLs. CONFRONTING AN ALLOCATION OF EFFECTIVE TIME TOGETHER Title 1Teacher •Well our, our teams meet every week um, I try to get into a grade level meeting once a month, our ELL people try to get into a grade level meeting once a month.” Title 1 Teacher •“We get to meet with our teachers, half our staff about every other week I think it is and then the other half on the other- so twice a month we're meeting with staff so we get to meet with all staff once a month, that's what it is.” ELL Teacher •“I might occasionally hear from a class- from grade level teams or classroom teachers something that their kids are working on in class and that they are asking me to support in their ELL time” ELL Teacher •As I am having a conversation with a teacher I might say that, you know, I think that this is a kid:: who really needs a lot of visual support, you know” CONFRONTING AN ALLOCATION OF EFFECTIVE TIME TOGETHER have a push in so that's really nice from ELL and she Classroom •“We comes and helps and I schedule writing at that time so she Teacher comes in and works with them.” Classroom Teacher •“I think that's a huge crutch in our system. um, that everyone else is doing these amazing things and you might just not know it because you haven't gone down to ask them and they don't have time to explain.” Classroom Teacher •“All the ELL assistants that are amazing and do great work but I don't have time to talk to them because they leave before my day is over.” THE NEED FOR TIME “Leaders need to provide time for teachers to study texts, tasks, and assessments, and to examine student work products at different levels of English proficiency in collaboration with content, ELD, and literacy experts” (Santos et al., n.d., p. 9). Effective and productive collaboration cannot happen during teachers’ prep or transition time. WRITE DOWN 3 WORDS THAT DESCRIBE COLLABORATION . . . CONFRONTING AN IDEALISTIC PERCEPTION OF COLLABORATION Classroom Teacher Classroom Teacher •“There's no doubt that you know that working as a team has true benefits” •“When we have time for collaboration. It’s a little more effective than when I’m doing my own.” Classroom Teacher •“You can bounce ideas off and they will have information for you or share information that they can help you with.” Title 1 Teacher •“Each time we've gotten together we've tried to talk about um, what are things that we're doing in title or what are things that they're doing in ELL that would help um, those kids with the vocabulary and the content.” CONFRONTING AN IDEALISTIC PERCEPTION OF COLLABORATION ELL Specialist •“Last year, I worked with someone in the district who I disagreed with on many things. Her theory politics and instruction were all completely opposing. Her and I had the same job. We agreed to set aside our beliefs.” ELL Specialists •“It doesn’t come down to this policy or that policy. It comes down to listening. Everyone wants to learn. We all want to help kids.” Classroom Teacher •You know, we think for ourselves and obviously are our own teachers but we do try for consistency. We try to do the same things with one another or do the same thing as the other is doing." ISOLATION VERSUS COLLABORATION “No longer can ESL teachers sit back and deliver isolated skill lessons to their ELLs in vocabulary, grammar, reading, and writing” (Honigsfeld, 2010, p. 29). IDEALISTIC VERSUS COMPLEX PERCEPTIONS OF COLLABORATION “In their optimism about caring and supportive communities, advocates often underplay the role of diversity, dissent, and disagreement in community life, leaving practitioners ill-prepared and conceptions of collaboration underexplored.” (Achinstein, 2002, p. 421) WRITE DOWN 3 MORE WORDS THAT DESCRIBE COLLABORATION . . . CONFRONTING A LACK OF AWARENESS REGARDING STATUS AND POWER ELL Specialist ELL Specialists • "They think you are just some sort of an assistant who is there to teach Spanish and they just want you to either take the kids out of the classroom to get them out of the way or they expect you to leave the kids in the classroom who they think are accademically successful. " • "I think within the whoe school wide setting there might not always be as much understanding for what the purpose of ELL time is, you know, that we're really trying to support language growth and so like I, you know, I guess make surethat I'm also trying, if you now, I guess trying to tie in learnign about readin or other subject areas." CONFRONTING A LACK OF AWARENESS REGARDING STATUS AND POWER WHAT DO YOU THINK? •The subject teachers have a sense of ownership of their own areas and the authority to influence other teachers. •The ELL achievement problems are indicative of a larger institutional and societal culture reflecting a larger macro discourse of power and status. Arkoudis Creese “Bi-discoursal people are the ultimate sources of change. They are prepared to seek out alternative ways of viewing the world in which relations of power can be disrupted and reconfigured” Miller-Marsh (2002). In your own words define “bi-discoursal” While what may seem an obvious remedy for teachers to simply collaborate, it becomes more multifaceted as we take into account • dominant discourses that isolate teachers, • complex models of collaboration, and the • sociocultural factors of Power & status that impact the education of ELLs. We need to strive to expand our identities and perspectives in order to become one of MillerMarsh’s (2002 ) “Bi-discoursal people”. BIG IDEA ELL students need their teachers to weave together language, literacy, and content by advocating for time to engage in effective and productive collaboration with an awareness that challenges the dominant discourses that isolate teachers of ELLs.