ExC-ELL - English as a Second Language

Report
ExC-ELL
EXPEDITING COMPREHENSION
FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE
LEARNERS
Margarita Calderón, Ph.D.
Professor Emerita, Johns Hopkins University
Argelia Carreón, María Trejo, Elma Noyola,
Jeanne Cantú
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ExC-ELL
Learning Outcomes
• Overview of on-going implementation of
ExC-ELL
• Focus on modeling, partner reading, and
formulating questions
• Making teaching more efficient and
effective
• Answer teachers’ questions and concerns
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ExC-ELL
Oracy Takes Place During
Content Instruction
What is the amount of time for
student talk vs. teacher talk?
1. Pre-teaching of
vocabulary
2. Modeling
3. Partner reading
4. Peer summaries
5. Depth of word
studies/grammar
6. Class discussions
7. Cooperative learning
activities
8. Formulating Questions
and Numbered Heads
9. Round Table Reviews
10. Pre-writing & drafting
11. Revising/editing
12. Reading Final Products
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ExC-ELL
Vocabulary: Tiers 1, 2, and 3
TIER 1 -- Basic words ELLs need to communicate,
read, and write. Those that should be taught.
TIER 2 -- Information processing words that nest Tier 3
words in long sentences, polysemous words, transition
words, connectors; more sophisticated words for rich
discussions and specificity in descriptions.
TIER 3 -- Subject-specific words that label content
discipline concepts, subjects, and topics. Infrequently
used academic words.
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ExC-ELL
How Many Words to Teach?
Pre-teach 5 to 6 of the most
useful words for each
lesson/each subject each day.
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ExC-ELL
PRE-TEACHING VOCABULARY
An Example for 2nd to 12th
1. Teacher says the word. Asks students to
repeat the word 3 times.
2. Teacher states the word in context from the
text.
3. Teacher provides the dictionary definition(s).
4. Teacher explains meaning with studentfriendly definitions.
5. Highlights grammar, spelling, polysemy, etc.
6.  Engages students in activities to
develop word/concept knowledge.
7. Reminds students how/when to use the word.
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ExC-ELL
Engagement with Text
Preparing to Read
The teacher models:
• Previewing the text – What does the text
seem to be about and how is it organized?
• Activating prior knowledge – What do I
already know about the topic?
• Setting the purpose for reading – What do
I need to learn from the text? What are the
targeted learning objectives assigned?
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ExC-ELL
Partner Reading – Option 1
The teacher reads and models strategies for
students to apply:
• Partner A reads the first sentence. Partner B helps.
• Partner B reads the next sentence. Partner A helps.
• After each paragraph, partners “put their heads
together” and summarize what they read.
• Partners continue until they finish reading the
section assigned.
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ExC-ELL
Global Warming
What's causing today's increased temperatures?
Many scientists say that human activities, such
as burning coal, oil, and other fossil fuels, are
largely to blame. These activities release heattrapping gases, such as carbon dioxide, into the
atmosphere. The more these gases accumulate
in the atmosphere, the hotter things get on
Earth.
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ExC-ELL
Close and Careful Reading
The teacher models responding to repeated
readings:
1. What does it say?
2. What does it mean?
3. Why is it important?
The teacher models how students should
stop and reflect intermittently.
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ExC-ELL
Partner Reading – Option 2
• Partner A reads a paragraph. Partner B helps.
• Partner B retells what happened in the
paragraph or identifies the main idea/target
strategy. Partner B adds details. (The partner
who reads the paragraph always
retells/identifies the strategy applied.
• Partners A and B alternate roles.
• The teacher leads a short discussion of the
page to check comprehension.
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ExC-ELL
Questions and
Language/Literacy Tasks
• High-quality sequences of text-dependent
questions should be modeled.
• Questions should begin with relatively simple
questions requiring attention to specific words,
details, and arguments, and then move to
explore the impact of those specifics on the text
as a whole.
• Series of questions that demonstrate students
ability to follow the details of what is explicitly
stated in the text.
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ExC-ELL
Questions and
Language/Literacy Tasks
• Good questions will often linger over specific
phrases and sentences to ensure careful
comprehension.
• Questions should also focus on inferences
based on evidence from the text.
• Questions should focus on building and
extending knowledge.
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ExC-ELL
Formulating Questions
Students work in teams of four:
1. Construct two questions based on the
specific Bloom’s level assigned to your
team.
2. Write each question on a separate card.
3. Give your cards to the teacher.
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ExC-ELL
THINKING PROCESS
(Knowledge-1)
Shallow processing:
drawing out factual
answers, testing recall
and recognition
R
E
M
E
M
B
E
R
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 1
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
choose
describe
define
identify
label
list
locate
match
memorize
name
omit
recite
recognize
select
state
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MODEL
QUESTIONS
Who?
Where?
Which one?
What?
How?
What is the best?
Why?
How much?
When?
What does it mean?
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
• Highlighting
• Rehearsal
• Memorizing
• Mnemonics
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ExC-ELL
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 2
THINKING
PROCESS
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
(Comprehension-2)
Translating,
interpreting and
extrapolating
classify, defend
demonstrate
distinguish
explain, express
extend
give example
illustrate
indicate
interrelate
interpret
infer, judge
match
paraphrase
represent
restate
rewrite
select, show
summarize
tell, translate
U
N
D
E
R
S
T
A
N
D
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MODEL QUESTIONS
State in your own words.
Which are facts?
What does this mean?
Is this the same as…?
Give an example. Select
the best definition.
Condense this
paragraph.
What would happen if…?
State in one word…
Explain what is
happening.
What part doesn’t fit?
Explain what is meant.
What expectations are
there?
Read the graph (table).
What are they saying?
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
• Key examples
• Emphasize connections
• Elaborate concepts
• Summarize
• Paraphrase
• STUDENTS explain
• STUDENTS state the rule
• Why does this example…?
• Create visual representations
(concept maps, outlines, flow
charts, organizers, analogies,
pro/con grids) PRO/CON
• NOTE: The teacher can show
them, but they have to do it.
• Metaphors, rubrics, heuristics
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ExC-ELL
THINKING
PROCESS
(Application-3)
Knowing when to apply,
why to apply and
recognizing patterns of
transfer to situations that
are new, unfamiliar, or
have a new slant for
students
A
P
P
L
Y
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 3
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
apply
choose
dramatize
explain
generalize
judge
organize
paint
prepare
produce
select
show
sketch
solve
use
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MODEL QUESTIONS
Predict what would
happen if…
Choose the best
statements that apply.
Judge the effects…
What would result…
Tell what would happen.
Tell how, when, where,
why.
Tell how much change
there would be.
Identify the results of…
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
• Modeling
• Cognitive
apprenticeships
• “Mindful” practice –
NOT just a “routine”
practice
• Part and whole
sequencing
• Authentic situations
• “Coached” practice
• Case studies
• Simulations
• Algorithms
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ExC-ELL
THINKING
PROCESS
(Analysis-4)
Breaking down into
parts, forms
A
N
A
L
Y
Z
E
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 4
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
analyze
categorize
classify
compare
differentiate
distinguish
identify
infer
point out
select
subdivide
survey
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MODEL QUESTIONS
What is the function of…?
What’s fact? Opinion?
What assumptions…?
What statement is relevant?
What motive is there?
What conclusions?
What does the author believe?
What does the author assume?
Make a distinction.
State the point of view of…
What ideas apply?
What ideas justify the
conclusion?
What’s the main idea? Theme?
What inconsistencies?
Fallacies?
What literary form is used?
What persuasive technique?
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
• Models of thinking
• Challenging
assumptions
• Retrospective
analysis
• Reflection through
journaling
• Debates
• Discussions and
other collaborating
learning activities
• Decision-making
situations
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ExC-ELL
THINKING
PROCESS
(Evaluation-6)
Evaluate according to
some set of criteria and
state why
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 5
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
appraise
judge
criticize
defend
compare
E
V
A
L
U
A
T
E
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MODEL QUESTIONS
What fallacies,
consistencies,
inconsistencies appear?
Which is more important,
moral, better, logical,
valid, appropriate?
Find the errors.
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
• Challenging
assumptions
• Journaling
• Debates
• Discussions and
other collaborating
learning activities
• Decision-making
situations
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ExC-ELL
THINKING
PROCESS
(Synthesis-5)
Combining elements
into a pattern not
clearly there before
C
R
E
A
T
E
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 6
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
choose
combine
compose
construct
create
design
develop
do
formulate
hypothesize
invent
make
make up
originate
plan
produce
role play, tell
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MODEL QUESTIONS
How would you test…?
Propose an alternative.
Solve the following.
How else would you…?
State a rule.
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
• Modeling
• Challenging
assumptions
• Reflection through
journaling
• Debates
• Discussions and
other collaborating
learning activities
• Design
• Design-making
situations
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ExC-ELL
Numbered Heads Together
• Number off in your team from 1 to 4.
• Listen to the question.
• Put your heads together and find the answer.
• Make sure everyone in your team knows the
answer.
• Be prepared to answer when your number is
called.
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ExC-ELL
CCSS -- Writing
• Writing shows that students can analyze and
synthesize sources in texts they read,
presenting careful analysis, well-defended
claims, ideas, and clear information.
• They draw evidence from a text or text to
support analysis, reflection, or research.
• Short focused research projects should also
be used.
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ExC-ELL
High School ESL 2 Lesson
Michelle Chrismon
DATE: October 5, 2010
UNIT/THEME: The Hunger Games / Symbolism
LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE:
Categorize symbols found in
Chapters 1 and 2.
Visualize while reading with a
partner to increase comprehension.
KEY VOCABULARY:
insurmountable
fond
token
anticlimactic
CONTENT OBJECTIVE:
English 1 5.01 – Demonstrate
understanding of symbolism.
English 1 1.03 – Demonstrate
comprehension of main idea and
supporting details.
MATERIALS:
PowerPoint
books
Symbolism Categories Chart
partners
Sentence Strips
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The Hunger Games
Cards for assigning
Post-it Notes
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ExC-ELL
Sample ESL Lesson
FOCUS: (DO NOW/WARM UP)
Match the vocabulary word to the correct definition.
1. reaping
2. apothecary
a. Two teenagers chosen from each district to fight in the
Hunger Games
3. tesserae
b. A year’s worth of grain and oil
4. tributes
c. Payment for your sins or wrong-doing
5. repentance
d. Person who prepares and sells medicines and drugs
e. The selection of tributes for the Hunger Games
CONNECT TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE/BUILD BACKGROUND:
Review symbolism with Roundtable: List symbols and the ideas they represent.
GUIDED PRACTICE:
Categorize symbols on the Symbolism Categories Chart.
VOCAB 7 STEPS:
On PowerPoint
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ExC-ELL
High School ESL 2 Lesson
ENGAGEMENT WITH TEXT: (READING COMPREHENSION)
Model visualization - page 34, 1st two paragraphs.
Assign partners with cards (match suits).
Remind to summarize.
Partners read pages 34 through middle of page 40 (stop after Gale leaves).
REVIEW:
Ask about visualizing - how was that? Could you see Prim’s face when she
asked Katniss to really, really try? What do you think the pin looks like that
Madge gave her (her token from the district)? What about Gale - could you
smell the wood smoke? Could you see the people freezing to death in the
arena? (I didn’t; I couldn’t get past the venomous snake part!)
Why do you think Peeta’s dad went to see Katniss?
What do you think Gale was going to tell Katniss to remember?
ASSESSMENT:
Exit Pass - Write one thing you learned today on a Post-it Note and put it on
the Parking Lot.
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SOLUTION
TREE
ExC-ELL
Solution Tree Press:
Item # 14BSF–BKF402
Solution-tree.com
Phone
800.733.6786
FAX
812.336.7790
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ExC-ELL
www.corwinpress.com
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ExC-ELL
Preventing LongTerm ELs:
Transforming
Schools to Meet
Core Standards
Paperback: $31.95,
D10840-978-1-41297416-5
WWW.CORWIN
PRESS.COM
800-233-9936
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THANK YOU!!!
ExC-ELL
Wishing you great success
in your endeavors!
[email protected]
www.margaritacalderon.org
202-368-4621
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