Sorbents Workshop - National Response Team

Report
RRT 3 Meeting
Rehoboth Beach, Delaware
May 18th, 2011
OMB Circular A-119 (Public Law #
104-113).
 ASTM Performance Standards.
 Adsorbents – F-726.
 Absorbents – F-716.
 Thickeners/Solidifiers – F-726/716.




Inorganic sorbents – include mineral
products such as vermiculite, perlite,
sand, clay (alumina silicates), activated
carbon, pozzolanic rock.
All of these materials rely upon liquids
coating surfaces, both external and
internal.
Adsorbents by definition.



Cellulosic and Synthetic materials.
Cellulosic – comprised of carbon
elements, naturally occurring materials
such as wood chips, feathers, ground
corncobs, peat moss, cotton,
diatomaceous earth, etc.
Adsorbent by definition.



Comprised of carbon elements but manmade “surface-coating” materials such
as polypropylene, polyurethane,
polyethylene.
Adsorbent by definition.
Others – cross-linked polymers and
rubber compounds that “swell” in
liquids are Absorbents by definition.





Polypropylene - adsorbent.
1950s – Naval Research Labs – micro –
filter applications.
1960s – Exxon develops mb-pp process.
1970s – Exxon patents & processes in
place. 3M and K-C primary downstream
marketers.
1989 – Exxon Valdez boosts New Pig,
SPC and dozens of others.





Super-Absorbents Polymers (SAPs)
1960s – P&G develop “water-sensitive”
polymers (polyacrylates/polyacrylamides), to
become known as “Pampers®”.
Revolutionize personal health care industry.
1970s – Dow Chemical develops “oilsensitive” polymers (alkyl styrene
copolymers), to become known as Imbiber
Beads®.
SAP unique to the entire sorbent industry.




Solidifiers
1960s – Shell Chemical invents styrenic block
copolymers as hot-melt adhesives, asphalt
additives, moulded thermoplastics, others.
1992 – Exxon investigates use of polystyrene
in combination with polybutadiene,
polyisoprene (rubber) as a sorbent material.
2003/2004 – Selection Guide “Alternative
Response Technologies” & Pre-Approval for
use.

“Disclaimer: [Product Name] is on the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency’s NCP
Product Schedule. This listing does NOT mean
that EPA approves, recommends, licenses,
certifies, or authorizes the use of [Product
Name] on an oil discharge. The listing means
only that data have been submitted to EPA as
required by subpart J of the National
Contingency Plan, Section 300.915. (Source: 40
CFR §300.920 (e))”









10 Solidifier Products
1 oil-sensitive SAP.
Representative Test Liquids :
Mineral Spirits – household cleaning solvent.
SAE 10 W 30 – typical refined lubricating oil.
# 2 Diesel Fuel – aliphatic transportation fuel.
Gasoline – aromatic transportation fuel.
Xylene – aromatic BTEX-type solvent.
Note – crude oil very difficult to obtain.




To determine effectiveness of test Products to
completely “immobilize” test Liquids within
given time-frame.
To determine effectiveness of test Products to
completely immobilize test Liquids using
variable volumes of test Liquids.
Observable “free” liquids within test
containers after time limit considered a
failure.
Product/Liquid mix “slump” @ 15-30°angle
considered a failure.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Elimination of “free” liquids means:
Elimination of secondary contamination of
personnel versus adsorbents.
Elimination of secondary contamination of
the environment versus adsorbents.
Significant reduction of concentration-in-air
of toxic and/or explosive vapors.
Concentration-in-air often to below LEL.
Waste disposal minimized.





Gasoline spill during
loading operations.
Colourless? Where is it?
Explosive vapours? Toxic
Vapours?
SOP – foam or
evaporate/dissipate?
Toxicity Considerations Fuels & solvents near
urban centers?





Product samples assigned Product Code #s.
Volume ratios of test product to volume ratios
of test liquid determined at 1:1; 1:2; 1:4; & 1:8.
Test products added to test liquids to
simulate spill application.
Test products allowed to stand for 3 hours @
20° C / 68° F.
Note – Bulk density of test solidifiers approx.
½ of test SAP.








Solidifiers (Product Code #s 101, 102, 103, 104,
201, 202, 203, 205, 206) – Failed all tests @ all
ratios with all test liquids.
Solidifier (Product Code # 204)
Failed all tests @ 1:8 volume ratio.
Immobilized Diesel Fuel & Mineral Spirits @ 1:4
volume ratio.
Failed on Gasoline & Xylene @ 1:4 volume ratio.
Failed on Xylene @ 1:2 volume ratio.
Immobilized Xylene @ 1:1 volume ratio.
Immobilized 4 remaining test liquids @ 1:1 & 1:2
ratios.




Super-Absorbent Polymer (Product Code #
301).
Failed to immobilize SAE 10W30 test liquid @
all volume ratios.
Immobilized gasoline, xylene, diesel fuel &
mineral spirit test liquids at all volume ratios.
“Swelling” of SAPs means they will absorb
several times their volume of liquids.





All solidifiers are not created equal.
All of the solidifiers dissolved to varying
degrees in excess liquid as per ASTM specs.
Particle size played a role in the speed of the
reaction.
Aggressive solvents such as gasoline and
xylene were more difficult to handle.
The SAP was able to immobilize several
volumes of solvent due its swelling, as per
ASTM specs.






1989 Exxon Valdez – recovery rates 10 – 15%
2010 Deepwater Horizon – recovery rates 10 –
15%.
Heavy reliance on disposal technologies such
as dispersants and in-situ burning.
Chemical recovery almost non-existent.
Failure of mechanical recovery techniques to
adapt and look for innovations.
Time for change?
“You must be the change you want
to see in the world”
(Mahatma Ghandi,1869 – 1948)
Thank You for Your Interest.

similar documents