Do installed steam logjams increase macroinvertebrate richness and abundance? Seyeon Kim and Ong Xiong with faculty mentor Dr. Todd Wellnitz Biology Department | University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire Results Plecoptera 2% Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) experimental design: 1. Survey the initial condition of the control & impact site. 2. Apply treatment (logjam installation) to the impact site. 3. Allow time for the impact to occur. 4. Re-survey the control & impact sites. Trichoptera 17% Ephemeroptera 28% Diptera 39% 600 Control * 400 200 0 Logjam CNTRL LOGJAM CNTRL 2011 LOGJAM 2012 Figure 1. Community composition at control and impact sites. Pie charts (left) show percent abundance of the dominant macroinvertebrate orders one year after logjam installation. Graph (right) shows the total number (mean ± 1 SE) of benthic invertebrates compared to the number of Chironomidae (Diptera). Chironomids made up a smaller fraction of the community in 2012, the year after logjam installation (MANOVA, p < 0.05). Abundance m-2 100 1.5 * A Trichoptera Ephemeroptera 80 Plecoptera * 60 40 20 0 Seyeon Kim identifying stream macroinvertebrate samples in the lab. All Inverterates Chironomidae Plecoptera 16% Diptera 70% Hypothesis Methods 800 2012 Ephemeroptera 5% 120 Installing a “natural” stream logjam will increase macroinvertebrate richness and abundance above those found on the streambed. Coleoptera 10% Abundance m-2 Stream logjams are fixed accumulations of wood that can increase the heterogeneity of stream habitats by: 1. Creating hydraulic roughness. 2. Retaining organic matter such as leaves and sticks. 3. Inducing pool and riffle formation, thereby altering stream depth and velocity. 4. Accumulating fine sediments immediately above the logjam, exposing coarse bed immediately below. 5. Providing substrate for algal colonization, which serves as food for many macroinvertebrates. By increasing habitat heterogeneity in this manner, we predicted that logjams would enhance habitat for aquatic macroinvertebrate and increase their numbers. Trichoptera 7% Coleoptera 6% CNTRL LOGJAM CNTRL LOGJAM 2011 2011 2012 2012 Species richness per sample Introduction 1.3 * B Trichoptera Ephemeroptera Plecoptera 1.0 * 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.0 CNTRL LOGJAM CNTRL LOGJAM 2011 2011 2012 2012 Figure 2. Effect of logjam installation on the number of individuals (A) and species richness (B) within the insect orders Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera, i.e., caddisflies, mayflies and stoneflies. There was a significant Time x Treatment interaction (MANOVA, p < 0.05) indicating that mayfly and stonefly abundance and richness both increased at the logjam site 1 yr after logjam installation. Error bars represent ± 1 SE. Discussion We found partial support for our hypothesis. Although taxonomic richness and abundance did not change for the macroinvertebrate community as a whole, it did for three important indicator taxa, the Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and the Chironomidae (midges; Diptera). Mayfly and stonefly nymphs increased at the logjam whereas midge larvae decreased in number. We speculate that the logjam provided mayfly and stonefly nymphs with refuge from fish predators and also increased surface area for their colonization. Midge density, by contrast, may have decreased because the logjam concentrated predacious stoneflies that commonly feed on chironomids. The artificial logjam one year after installation. Note the accumulation of woody debris on the upstream face. Field Methods: We used a BACI approach to examine the impact of an installed logjam on a small stream in northern Minnesota’s Superior National Forest. The control site was located 50 m upstream of the impact (logjam) site. We sampled the macroinvertebrate community at both sites prior to logjam installation, and then assembled the logjam at the impact site. The macroinvertebrate community was sampled again one year later. Our results lend support to the idea that logjams have an important role in structuring the biological as well as the physical environment of streams. Mayflies and stoneflies are used as indicators of stream health and ecosystem function, and consequently, installed logjams may provide resources managers a tool for enhancing habitat for these sensitive taxa. Team Logjam in the field. From left to right are Zach Snobl, Aaron Devoe, Brennean Dow and Ong Xiong. Acknowledgements Funding and support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation, the US Forest Service, the UWEC Center of Excellence for Faculty and Undergraduate Student Research Collaboration, and the UWEC Diversity Mentoring Program. Special thanks goes to all the members of Team Logjam – Aaron Devoe, Zach Snobl, Brennen Dow & Sarina Rutter and others -- who helped set up the study, sample the stream, and process the samples.