AGENT ORANGE

Report
Tri Tran
 INTRODUCTION
 CHEMICAL DESCRIBTION
 TOXICOLOGY
 Used
 Effect
 Reference
 WRITTEN ASSIGMENT
 AGENT ORANGE IS An HERBICIDE AND
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DEFOLIANT
USED BY U.S. MILITARY 1961-1971 in Vietnam war
MIXTURE 1:1 OF TWO HERBICIDES 2,4,5-T AND 2,4D
Manufactured for the U.S. Department of Defense
primarily by MOSANTO CORPORATION and DOW
CHEMICAL
The 2,4,5-T used to produce Agent Orange was
contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
(TCDD) , an extremely toxic dioxin compound
 1:1 MIXTURE OF TWO PHENOXYL HERBICIDES
 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D)
 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (also known as
2,4,5-T)
 2,4,5-T was contaminated with a dioxin, 2,3,7,8-
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD)
 TCDD has been described as "perhaps the most toxic
molecule ever synthesized by man".
 The National Toxicology Program has classified TCDD
as "known to be a human CARCINORGEN”
 The half-life of dioxins in soil is more than 10 years,
and TCDD in human fat tissue is about 7 years.
 the United States military sprayed nearly 20,000,000
U.S. gallons (75,700,000 l)
 the goal was to defoliate rural/forested land
 12 percent of the total area of South Vietnam had been
sprayed
 TCDD concentrations in soil and water were hundreds
of times greater than the levels considered safe by the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 4 million citizens were exposed, about 3 million have
suffered illnesses
 Children in the areas have multiple health problems:
including cleft palate, mental disabilities, hernias, and
extra fingers and toes,
 High levels of dioxin were found in the breast milk of
South Vietnamese women
 The contaminated soil and sediment poisoning food
chain and causing illnesses, serious skin diseases and a
variety of cancers in the lungs, larynx, and prostate
 the veterans were told not to worry, and were
persuaded the chemical was harmless.
 high levels of dioxin in the blood of U.S. military
 rates of cancer, and nerve, digestive, skin, and
respiratory disorders have increased.
 had higher rates of throat cancer, acute/chronic
leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's
lymphoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer,
soft tissue sarcoma and liver cancer.
 Use Veterans began to file claims in 1977 to the
Department of Veterans Affairs => claims were denied
 From 1978, several lawsuits have been filed against the
companies which produced Agent Orange
 Vietnam Association for Victims of Agent
Orange/dioxin (VAVA), filed a lawsuit judges
dismissed the case
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http://www.science20.com/news_articles/agent_orange_linked_skin_cancer_risk-128602
Buckingham. "The Air Force and Herbicides“
Fawthrop, Tom; "Vietnam's war against Agent Orange", BBC News, June 14, 2004
Fawthrop, Tom; "Agent of Suffering", Guardian, February 10, 2008
Galston, Authur (Feb 1979). "Herbicides: A Mixed Blessing". Bioscience 29 (2): 85–90.
doi:10.2307/1307744. JSTOR 1307744. Retrieved 2014-09-13.
http://www.oocities.org/capecanaveral/Hall/1443/agento.html
pellow-2007-159
Tucker, Spencer. Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: Political, Social and Military History.
ABC-CLIO, Inc. Santa Barbara. 1997.
Agent Orange blights Vietnam". BBC News. December 3, 1998. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
Hermann, Kenneth J.; "Killing Me Softly: How Agent Orange Murders Vietnam's
Children", Political Affairs, April 25, 2006
February 22, 2008 Decision by the Second Circuit Court of Appeals re: Vietnam
Association of Victims of Agent Orange v. Dow Chemical Co." . Retrieved 2012-07-07.
"Order List" (PDF). The United States Supreme Court. March 2, 2009. p. 7. Archived from
the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2010
 An informational pamphlet

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