Reverse Inclusion - WCUGradAdaptedPE

Report
Reverse Inclusion
By: Whitney Sharp, Leah Barcusky,
& Jenna Filipone
West Chester Univeristy
KIN 582
What is Inclusion?
• Students with disabilities participates in a typical
educational classroom setting in order to interact with
others and be included in the least restrictive
environment
• Environment includes…
•
•
•
•
Specials
Lunch
Recess
Academic Settings
• Time included in mainstream setting depends on the individual
child’s needs
• Amount of time student is in the inclusive
environment varies from child to child
Benefits of Inclusion
• Children with disabilities
•
•
•
•
Development of friendships
Enhanced self-respect
Sense of belonging
Peer models.
• Children W/O disabilities
• Increase awareness and
responsiveness
• Increase skill acquisition
• Gains in communication
skills
• Development of friendships
• Sense of belonging
• ALL Students
• Develop respect for all
• Increase understanding of
other children’s needs
Challenges of Inclusion
•
•
•
•
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Lack of quality staff
Logistics
Scheduling
Funding
Difficulties trying to
meet the students’
unique needs in the
general education
setting.
Ways to “Include” Children with Disabilities
• Full Inclusion
• Children are full participants in a general education program
• Cluster
• A small group of children with disabilities is embedded
within a program for children who are typically developing
• Reverse Inclusion
• A small group of children who are typically developing is
added to a specialized program for children with disabilities
• Social Inclusion
• Children with disabilities are in separate classes but social
interactions opportunities are planned for children with
and without disabilities
Reverse Inclusion
• Is the process of including developing children in
a special education classroom.
• Providing peer interaction opportunities while
providing the support services by bringing the
classroom setting for a short period of time to
interact socially
Challenges of Reverse Inclusion
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•
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Finding student without disabilities to enroll in program
Funding for supplies for students who are not disabled
Transporting students who are not disabled on fieldtrips
Having to work with a large number of students
Time to planning for all
Training staff to properly facilitate inclusion interactions
Advantages of Reverse Inclusion
• No extra classroom/therapy room needed
• No collaboration is needed with GE teacher
• SE Teacher has control of schedule, activities and
classroom
• ALL students have better social development, more
empathy, and higher academic achievement
• ALL students develop friendships and enhances selfrespect
• Allows for peer modeling for students with disabilities
which increase skill achievement and communication
skills
• Fosters friends for ALL students
Elements of Reserve Inclusion
• Administrator Support
• Inclusion and Collaboration
• Physical Environment
• Teaching Strategies
• Student Selection
Resources Needed
• Parents of children W/O disabilities willing to
participate
• Support from administration
• Flexible Staff
• Staff who is willing to implement differentiated
instruction
Benefits of Reverse Inclusion
Disabled
• Helps make lasting
friendships
• Motivate them to
improve their
communication skills
• Help increase success
rate on meeting IEP
social/emotional skills
• Improve their chances of
eventually joining an
inclusion setting
Non-Disabled
• Build friendships that
will last outside of the
classroom
• Learn how to get along
with students who are
different from them
• Help to combat
stereotypes and
embrace diversity and
respect
Disability Sports- History
• Following WWII the demand for rehabilitation programs
increased
• Sir Ludwig Guttman, believed that sports should be an
integral pat of rehabilitation programs
• Rehabilitation sport programs grew into recreational sports
and eventually competitive sports
• 1948- The Stoke Mandeville Games were held at The Stoke
Mandeville Hospital in England
• 1960- First Paralympics held in Rome
• 1960’s- Special Olympics
• Paralympics 2012
Disabled Sport Organizations
• International Wheelchair Rugby Federation- IWRF
• Cerebral Palsy International Sport and Recreation AssociationCPISRA
• International Blind Sports Federation- IBSA
• International Wheelchair Basketball Federation- IWBF
• International Wheelchair Amputee Sports Federation- IWAS
• United States Association for Blind Athletes- USABA
•
• International Committee of Sports for the Deaf - ICSD
• Special Olympics
Disability Sports vs. Adapted
Sports
• Adapted sports – traditional sports altered to meet the needs
of an individual with a disability
• Disability sports- sports created specifically for individuals with
disabilities
• Disability sports: Sitting volleyball, Beep Baseball, Goalball,
wheelchair sports
Sit Volleyball
• Started in the
Netherlands- Paralympic
Sport
• Those eligible to play:
neurological,
neuromuscular,
muscular, bone, joint,
and amputation
disabilities
• Differentiated rules:
- A portion of the pelvis
must be in contact with
the floor at all times
- Net heights
Sit Volleyball in Action
• Sit Volleyball in Rwanda
Incorporating in general PE:
• All students are seated
• Lower a badminton net
• Minimal equipment needed- Rope, Ball, Tape
Goalball
• USA vs. China
• Hans Lorenzen- 1946
• Blind sport- played by
athletes with visual
impairments
• Paralympic sport
• Teams of 3 attempt to
roll the ball past the
opposing team’s defense
• Equipment:
- Goaball
- Tactile Court
- Blind folds
Goalball
• Goalball Germany vs Japan 2011
• Remember Me Drill: Spread in a square pass the ball in the
same sequence every time, call for ball by tapping
• Block It: Students stand in a circle around a blindfolded
student, trying to pass the ball past the blindfolded student
with the underhand Goalball roll
Incorporating in General PE:
• All students are blindfolded
• Students serve as line judges/ score keepers
• Nets are not necessarily needed
Beep Baseball
• Blind Sport- athletes with
visual impairments
• Many tournaments held
around the country each year
• Equipment Needed:
- Beep baseball
- Bases
- Bat
- Tee
- Blindfolds
• Similar rules used in baseball
• 6 positions
• Batter must reach the base
before the ball is fielded by an
outfielder
Beep Baseball
• Beep Baseball
•
Incorporating into General PE:
• All students wear blindfolds
• Allow each team to bat an entire cycle
• Use students as pitchers/ spotters
• Students in the field wear helmets as well
Wheelchair Sports
• Wheelchair soccer:
- Played by individuals with physical
disabilities
- Played on a basketball court
- Manual/ electric wheelchairs
• Wheelchair rugby:
- Murderball
- USA- Quad Rugby
- Handball, basketball, and hockey
- Use manual sports chairs made
specifically for gameplay
• Wheelchair basketball:
- Paralympic sport
- Similar rules to basketball
- Only touch wheels twice after
dribbling or receiving a pass
“travelling”
Wheelchair Sports cont…
• Wheelchair Basketball
• Call It Out Drill: Passes as you move down the floor
Incorporating into General PE:
• Borrow wheelchairs for use
• If no chairs are available use office chairs
• Adapt rules as needed
Resources
•
Building Bridges. (2012) Inclusion-Reverse Inclusion. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from
http://buildingbridgesre.weekly.com/inclusionreverse-inclusion.html
•
Davis, Ronald W. (2011). Teaching Disability Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
•
Inclusion Collaborative. (2008). Reverse Inclusion. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from www.sccoe
.org/programs/inclusion
•
Rafferty, Yvonne & Kenneth W. Griffin. (2005). Benefits and Risks of Reverse Inclusion for Preschoolers with and without
Disabilities: Perspectives of Parents and Provider. Journal of Early Intervention, 2005, Vol. 27, No. 3, 177-192
•
Schoger, Kimberly D. (2006). Reserve Inclusion: Providing Peer Social Interaction Opportunities to Students Placed in SelfContained Special Education Classrooms. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 2(6) Article 3. Retrieved February 10, 2013
from http://escholarship.bc.edu/education/tecplus/vol2/iss6art3

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