By Anneliese Scalzo and Gabrielle Jackson
APWH Period 5
The prophet Mohammad (or Muhammad), a
camal driver, founded the religion of Islam. In
610 B.C., at the age of forty, Mohammad was
visited by the angel, Gabriel, in Mecca. This
began a series of revelations that would become
the content of the Quran (the Muslim equivalent
of the Bible). He went about converting people
to this new monotheistic religion that would later
become known as Islam. He is viewed today as
the last prophet of Allah, the Muslim word for
“God”. By 622 B.C., he was run out of Mecca and
into Medina by those who opposed his teachings.
 God in Arabic
 The color green is an important Muslim symbol. It is used
 decoration of mosques
 the bindings of Qur'ans
 the silken covers for the graves of Sufi saints
 flags of various Muslim countries
 it was the color used by Muhammad’s tribe on their flags
 According to Muslims green symbolizes nature and life.
 In the Qur'an (Surah 76:21), it is said that the inhabitants of
paradise will wear green garments of fine silk.
 Star and Crescent
 However, Islam is generally against appointing holy symbols
 Allah, the main god, whose name
entails no plural or gender; only
deity or god that is to be
worshipped. He is understood to be
the same god of Judaism and
Christianity. Prophets (special
messengers) include Adam, Noah,
Abraham, Moses, Jesus, etc. In
addition angels, such as Gabriel.
Location of
 Commonly considered to
be Medina, where the
prophet fled to in 622
 It is also considered to
be Mecca, where the
prophet first received
visions and gathering
Major Locations Today
 Islam is most commonly
practiced in the Middle
East, Southwestern Asia,
and Northern Africa
Number of Followers
 Islam is the second
largest religion in
the world, with 1.1
billion followers.
How/Why did the Religion Spread
 Muhammad made speeches about
the religion, spreading the concepts
throughout Mecca and Medina.
 Followers spread it through military
Holy Book
 The only holy book in the Islam religion is the Qur’an,
which was written by Mohammad in the last 30 years of
his life.
Places of Worship
 Mosques.
 Often large in size.
 Commonly equipped
with a musallah, one or
more domes, one or
more minarets, a
mihrab, and ablution
Roles of Women and Men
Islam is historically notorious for its stringent
social, cultural, and religious gender roles that its
followers are expected to adhere to. Traditionally, Islam
is a patriarchal religion that holds gender bias against
women. This view contradicts the Quran who views men
and women to be equal in “human dignity”. Most
women wear a head scarf, veil or Hijab.
Women do not have equal rights, they cannot
choose marriage partners, divorce, or child custody. In
verse 4.34, men are said to be guardians over women.
Women are expected to be obedient wives and mothers.
A Muslim man can have up to four wives according to
the Quran.
Holy sites
 Mecca- Birthplace of Muhammad.
 Medina- Where Muhammad and his followers sought
Major Islam holidays include:
•Milad un Nabi – Birthday of the Prophet
•Islam festivals - Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adha
•Muharram – the Islamic New Year
•Ramadan – ninth month of the Islamic calendar, when Muslims fast during
the daylight hours
•It is believed that the Qur’an was first revealed during this month
•It is believed that the gates of heaven are open and the gates of Hell
are closed and the devils are chained up.
Major Beliefs
 - Creation story- Allah created the universe, the heavens, and all
creatures in six days. Very similar to the Christian creation story.
 -Death- When one dies, Allah will have the final say on who passes
onto paradise and who is damned to hell.
 - The Five Pillars of Islam
- Iman- "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his
- Salat- Pray five times per day by dropping to one's knees and
facing Mecca as one does so.
- Sawm- Fast during the daylight hours of Ramadan, the holy
- Sakat- Donate roughly 2.5% of profit per year to the poor.
- Hajj- Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once at some point in
one's life.;_ylt=A0PDoV1own1Qe3sA6GiJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?
Influence on art,
architecture, etc
•Islamic architecture is seen in mosques, homes, and
gardens. Homes are built around a courtyard.
Decoration and color are focused on buildings. In
religious buildings geometry is the focus.
•Islamic Art is very unique because it is not
restricted to religious art, like Christians are. It is
very vibrant and colorful. It does not focus on
physical properties, but also their meaning and
beauty. Calligraphy and books are major art forms.
In Islamic art., geography and patterns are
1.In 570 CE, Muhammad, the founder of
Islam, was born
2.In 610 CE, he received his first vision in a
cave near Mecca.
3.In 622 CE, Muhammad and his followers
flee to Medina. This is called Hijira, and this
is the year the Islamic calendar begins.
4.In 650, Caliph Uthman had the Quran
written down.
5.In 680, the death of Husayn marks the
beginning of the Shi’a sect.
Timeline Cont.
6. In 754, Baghdad (“City of
Peace”) becomes the new
capital city of the Abbasid
7. From 786 t0 809 was the
reign of Harun ar-Rashid,
which is best known through
The Thousand and One Nights.
8. In 1109, Christian crusaders
took Jerusalem.
9. From 1126 to 1198 was the
life of Averroës, a Muslim
philosopher who sought to
integrate Islam with Greek
10. In the late 1990s, the
Taliban came to power in
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