Islam By Anneliese Scalzo and Gabrielle Jackson APWH Period 5 Schmid 10/18/12 http://www.pixmac.com/picture/3d+islamic+symbol/000047569455 Founder/Founding The prophet Mohammad (or Muhammad), a camal driver, founded the religion of Islam. In 610 B.C., at the age of forty, Mohammad was visited by the angel, Gabriel, in Mecca. This began a series of revelations that would become the content of the Quran (the Muslim equivalent of the Bible). He went about converting people to this new monotheistic religion that would later become known as Islam. He is viewed today as the last prophet of Allah, the Muslim word for “God”. By 622 B.C., he was run out of Mecca and into Medina by those who opposed his teachings. http://brettneckel.wordpress.com/ Symbols God in Arabic The color green is an important Muslim symbol. It is used for: decoration of mosques the bindings of Qur'ans the silken covers for the graves of Sufi saints flags of various Muslim countries it was the color used by Muhammad’s tribe on their flags According to Muslims green symbolizes nature and life. In the Qur'an (Surah 76:21), it is said that the inhabitants of paradise will wear green garments of fine silk. Star and Crescent However, Islam is generally against appointing holy symbols http://eireislam.blogspot.com/2011/09/d oes-islam-come-from-biblical-god.html Deities Allah, the main god, whose name entails no plural or gender; only deity or god that is to be worshipped. He is understood to be the same god of Judaism and Christianity. Prophets (special messengers) include Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, etc. In addition angels, such as Gabriel. http://www.google.com/imgres?q=quran+quotes+about+allah&u m=1&hl=en&safe=active&biw=1920&bih=963&tbm=isch&tbnid= yCJrCLy5SpdUBM:&imgrefurl=http://www.alisharah.com/%3Fp% 3D1524&docid=i_Jj33SB75xyMM&imgurl=http://www.alisharah.c om/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Q_67-2321000x500.png&w=1000&h=500&ei=jxR3UMPMDJTC0AHwk4HYAg &zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1252&vpy=495&dur=5607&hovh=159& hovw=318&tx=239&ty=152&sig=107368281028775049819&pag e=1&tbnh=92&tbnw=184&start=0&ndsp=48&ved=1t:429,r:35,s :0,i:182 Location of Origin Commonly considered to be Medina, where the prophet fled to in 622 AD. It is also considered to be Mecca, where the prophet first received visions and gathering followers. http://atheism.about.com/od/prophetmuhammadofislam/ig/Muhammad-DrawingsPictures/Muhammad-Arrives-in-Medina.htm Major Locations Today Islam is most commonly practiced in the Middle East, Southwestern Asia, and Northern Africa http://tolearn.net/hum300/images/maps/world_religions.gif Number of Followers Islam is the second largest religion in the world, with 1.1 billion followers. http://images.lightstalkers.org/images/232771/Muslims-at-prayer-duringRamzan.jpg How/Why did the Religion Spread Muhammad made speeches about the religion, spreading the concepts throughout Mecca and Medina. Followers spread it through military conquests. http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoKgUv31QnxsA6aeJzbkF;_ ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages. search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dspread%2Bof%2Bislam%2Bmap %26fr%3Dmy-myy%26fr2%3Dpivweb%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D1&w=900&h=693&imgurl=www.wallmaps.com%2FClassroom%2FAtlas%2FworldSpreadOfIslam750.gif&rurl=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww.wall-maps.com%2FClassroom%2FAtlas%2FWorld-HistoryAtlas.asp&size=395.9+KB&name=Spread+of+Islam+Map+...&p=spread+of+islam +map&oid=e4da4c19fe3d87de19697457bb6cfffa&fr2=piv-web&fr=mymyy&tt=Spread%2Bof%2BIslam%2BMap%2B...&b=0&ni=60&no=1&ts=&tab=orga nic&sigr=120qvt7jd&sigb=139nf5l9b&sigi=11rkn90tg&.crumb=DVnj13ttgMD Holy Book The only holy book in the Islam religion is the Qur’an, which was written by Mohammad in the last 30 years of his life. http://www.al-huda.com/quran1a.jpg Places of Worship Mosques. Often large in size. Commonly equipped with a musallah, one or more domes, one or more minarets, a mihrab, and ablution facilities. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bassinmosquee-saint-denis.JPG http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Prophet_Mohammad_ Mihrab.jpg http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoVxD.X5QUXkAgwaJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.se arch.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dmosque%26fr%3Dchr-hp-psg%26fr2%3Dpiv-web%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D5&w=1296&h=864&imgurl=www.heartof-music.com%2Fvusical%2FAllGods%2Fbrunei_mosque.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.heart-ofmusic.com%2Fvusical%2FAllGods%2FAllGods.html&size=141.7+KB&name=mosque&p=mosque&oid=97d499cfae636583354d5362f86a113e&fr2=piv-web&fr=chr-hppsg&tt=mosque&b=0&ni=21&no=5&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=11qi23esl&sigb=1300ii1m4&sigi=11o953o2d&.crumb=fkLZh47i41n Roles of Women and Men Islam is historically notorious for its stringent social, cultural, and religious gender roles that its followers are expected to adhere to. Traditionally, Islam is a patriarchal religion that holds gender bias against women. This view contradicts the Quran who views men and women to be equal in “human dignity”. Most women wear a head scarf, veil or Hijab. Women do not have equal rights, they cannot choose marriage partners, divorce, or child custody. In verse 4.34, men are said to be guardians over women. Women are expected to be obedient wives and mothers. A Muslim man can have up to four wives according to the Quran. http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/gezzeg/gezzeg120 2/gezzeg120200008/12408343-a-muslim-women-prayin-isolated-white-background.jpg Holy sites Mecca- Birthplace of Muhammad. Medina- Where Muhammad and his followers sought refuge. http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoS6twX1QDnMAHGyJzbkF;_ylu=X 3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo .com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dmecca%26fr%3Dmy-myy%26fr2%3Dpivweb%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D7&w=1000&h=709&imgurl=img.dailymail.co.uk%2Fi%2 Fpix%2F2007%2F12_03%2Fhaj1712_1000x709.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dailymail .co.uk%2Fnews%2Farticle-502988%2FAmazing-pictures-biggest-pilgrimageEarth.html&size=381+KB&name=It+is+one+of+the+greatest+examples+of+human+devo tion+on+earth++a+sea+of+white+robes+as+hundreds+of+thousands&p=mecca&oid=f356f8d7fcd6136f3 7021e21926234ee&fr2=piv-web&fr=mymyy&tt=It%2Bis%2Bone%2Bof%2Bthe%2Bgreatest%2Bexamples%2Bof%2Bhuman%2Bd evotion%2Bon%2Bearth%2B%2Ba%2Bsea%2Bof%2Bwhite%2Brobes%2Bas%2Bhundreds%2Bof%2Bthousands&b=0&n i=84&no=7&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=12t6subum&sigb=12ra6u2dl&sigi=11p5uae1k&.crumb =DVnj13ttgMD http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoX_mwX1Ql14Ay_CJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ 4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimage s%3Fp%3Dmedina%2Bcity%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf-8%26y%3DSearch%26fr%3Dmymyy%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D1&w=790&h=559&imgurl=www.cresset-travel.com%2Fblog%2Fwpcontent%2Fuploads%2F2011%2F08%2Fmedina.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.articlesbase.com%2Fd estinations-articles%2Fmedina-the-radiant-city-5185055.html&size=61.8+KB&name=Medina+– +The+Radiant+City&p=medina+city&oid=ba71851afe331344c96c677c03f242cf&fr2=&fr=mymyy&tt=Medina%2B%25E2%2580%2593%2BThe%2BRadiant%2BCity&b=0&ni=105&no=1&ts=&tab=o rganic&sigr=12mcgslrb&sigb=13ch02spi&sigi=121phbcdr&.crumb=DVnj13ttgMD Holidays Major Islam holidays include: •Milad un Nabi – Birthday of the Prophet •Islam festivals - Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adha •Muharram – the Islamic New Year •Ramadan – ninth month of the Islamic calendar, when Muslims fast during the daylight hours •It is believed that the Qur’an was first revealed during this month •It is believed that the gates of heaven are open and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are chained up. http://indiaadvices.com/wpcontent/uploads/2009/09/eidul-fitr-festival-02.jpg Major Beliefs - Creation story- Allah created the universe, the heavens, and all creatures in six days. Very similar to the Christian creation story. -Death- When one dies, Allah will have the final say on who passes onto paradise and who is damned to hell. - The Five Pillars of Islam - Iman- "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger.“ - Salat- Pray five times per day by dropping to one's knees and facing Mecca as one does so. - Sawm- Fast during the daylight hours of Ramadan, the holy month. - Sakat- Donate roughly 2.5% of profit per year to the poor. - Hajj- Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once at some point in one's life. http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoV1own1Qe3sA6GiJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dth e%2Bfive%2Bpillars%2Bof%2Bislam%26fr%3Dmy-myy%26fr2%3Dpiv-web%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D1&w=1024&h=768&imgurl=www.travelerswonder.com%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2012%2F02%2FThe-FivePillars-of-Islam.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.travelerswonder.com%2Fnews%2Fguide-to-islam-including-history-beliefs-holy-days-around-the-world-and-messageboards.html&size=618.9+KB&name=...+basic+religious+tenets%2C+generally+called+the+Five+Pillars+of+Islam&p=the+five+pillars+of+islam&oid=4f12db99a57755a462a1091f10e3a34b&fr2=piv-web&fr=mymyy&tt=...%2Bbasic%2Breligious%2Btenets%252C%2Bgenerally%2Bcalled%2Bthe%2BFive%2BPillars%2Bof%2BIslam&b=0&ni=112&no=1&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=13v6ach96&sigb=13fihlt3a&sigi=12gtfvmri&.crumb =DVnj13ttgMD Influence on art, architecture, etc •Architecture •Islamic architecture is seen in mosques, homes, and gardens. Homes are built around a courtyard. Decoration and color are focused on buildings. In religious buildings geometry is the focus. •Art •Islamic Art is very unique because it is not restricted to religious art, like Christians are. It is very vibrant and colorful. It does not focus on physical properties, but also their meaning and beauty. Calligraphy and books are major art forms. In Islamic art., geography and patterns are important. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/art/architecture.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/art/art_1.shtml#top Timeline 1.In 570 CE, Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born 2.In 610 CE, he received his first vision in a cave near Mecca. 3.In 622 CE, Muhammad and his followers flee to Medina. This is called Hijira, and this is the year the Islamic calendar begins. 4.In 650, Caliph Uthman had the Quran written down. 5.In 680, the death of Husayn marks the beginning of the Shi’a sect. http://listverse.com/2011/02/19/top-10-greatest-philosophers-in-history/ Timeline Cont. 6. In 754, Baghdad (“City of Peace”) becomes the new capital city of the Abbasid Empire. 7. From 786 t0 809 was the reign of Harun ar-Rashid, which is best known through The Thousand and One Nights. 8. In 1109, Christian crusaders took Jerusalem. 9. From 1126 to 1198 was the life of Averroës, a Muslim philosopher who sought to integrate Islam with Greek thought. 10. In the late 1990s, the Taliban came to power in Afghanistan. http://www.biofilman.is/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Aladdin.jpg Works Cited "3D Islamic Symbol." Www.pixmac.com. Pix Mac, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.pixmac.com/picture/3d islamic symbol/000047569455>. "Aladdin (1992)." Biolfilman.is. Bio Fil Man, n.d. 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