Spanish Conquistadors IN the Americas In fourteen hundred and ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue Inception of the Scientific Method • Hypothesis: It is possible to reach the Orient by sailing West • Experimentation: Voyages of Discovery • Analysis: There are two large land masses blocking access to the East • Conclusion: Two new continents – North and South America • The Age of Exploration presented enormous challenges and dilemmas to the world view of European civilization. • Even Columbus wavered between this fervent hope that he had discovered the Garden of Eden and his desire to exploit the riches and peoples of the New World. Engraving by Theodore DeBry Hispanic Exploration and Conquest 1492 – 1542 Spain and Portugal • In one generation Hispanics explored and colonized over half the earth & waters • During the period of exploration, in one generation, approximately 300,000 Spaniards had emigrated to the New World • They established over 200 cities and towns throughout the Americas. • In one generation Hispanics acquired more new territory than Rome conquered in five centuries . Spanish and Portugese Colonial Empires c. 16th c. Major Hispanic Explorations and Conquests • 1492- 1504: Columbus’s 4 voyages to New World • 1500: Pedro Cabral (Portugese) discovered Brazil • 1501-02: Amerigo Vespucci (Italian) after accompanying Spanish conquistadors decided that what they had discovered was not Asia, but new continents • 1508-21: Juan Ponce de Leon explored Cuba, Jamaican and Florida –Cuban conquest: 1508 • 1513: Vasco de Nuñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and named the Pacific ocean Detailed chronology of Spanish explorations and conquests Major Hispanic Explorations and Conquests • 1519- 22: Ferdinand Magellan's crew & ship, completed voyage of circumnavigation. • 1519-21: Hernando Cortez’s conquest of the Aztecs in Mexico • 1531: Francisco Pizarro’s conquest of the Incas in Peru • 1540: Vasquéz de Coronado explores California, Kansas, Arizona, New México, Texas, Oklahoma. • 1539-42: Hernando de Soto explores SE United States and discovers Mississippi River Detailed chronology of Spanish explorations and conquests Spanish Conquistadors in Florida Ponce de León’s Explorations: 1513-1521 Panfilo de Narvaez’s Explorations: 1527-28 Hernando de Soto’s Explorations across southern North America: 1538-1542; discovered Mississippi River Fray Luis Cancer’s failed missionary attempt: 1549 Tristan de Luna created garrison at Pensacola: 1559-1561 Pedro Menéndez de Avilés built a fort at St. Augustine and defeated the French at Fort Caroline: 1565 Ponce de León Ponce de León, who had accompanied Columbus on his second voyage and had colonized Puerto Rico, lost the Governership of that island to Columbus's son. In recompense, the king granted him rights to Bimini, legendary site of the fabled Fountain of Youth. In his Elegias de varonesillustres de Indias (1589), Juan de Castellanos, a veteran of numerous Spanish expeditions in the Caribbean and northern South America, describes the quest: I return, then, to Juan Ponce strong in the gifts of Juno and Belona, in quest of greater undertakings and service to the royal crown. He never wished to live in ease, although his station permitted it; and being free of his office, he wished to seek out this tale. Castellanos relates the tale of the miraculous waters at some length and with some humor although he scoffs at the search for "such foolish nonsense." Indeed Ponce de León never found the Fountain of Youth, but he did bump into the Florida peninsula: To the north, then, they turned their course, accompanied by great difficulties, far indeed from the famed fountain and the prosperous dwellers in its land: but he discovered the peninsula which he named Florida because he sighted it on Easter Sunday. Having made this discovery, he returned and asked to be made its adelanto. It was on Easter Sunday (Pascua florida in Spanish), 1513, that Ponce de León not only named the peninsula, but by doing so, claimed it and incorporated it into the body of European knowledge.. The Gulf Stream • An important discovery, unrecognized by Ponce de León, was the existence of a river in the ocean: the Gulf Stream. • The pilot, Anton de Alaminos, understood the importance of the discovery. • By riding the current, the ships could be carried to a point where the winds would carry them back to Spain. • This became the route of the later treasure ships. Thomas Moran, Ponce de Leon in Florida -- 19th c De León's Return: Aborted Settlement The King of Spain knighted Ponce de León and made him governor of Florida. Ponce de León left Santa Domingo in 1521 with two ships carrying two hundred colonists and domestic animals. They landed near Charlotte Harbor. The Calusa attacked, and Ponce de León was wounded. The colonists got into their ships and left. Ponce de León reached Cuba where he died of his wounds. The indigenous peoples of Florida resisted and held off European settlements for the next fifty years despite numerous attempts by Spanish conquistadors. The Conquest of Mexico During the year Ce Acatl ( One Reed) 1519 Aztec Empire 1350-1519 Aztecs 1350-1519 Aztecs came into the Valley of Mexico during the 12th and 13th century and rose to be the greatest power in the Americas by the time the Spaniards arrived in the 16th century. According to myth, Huitzilopochtli told Tenoch to lead his people to a place of refuge on a swampy island in Lake Texcoco. When they reached their destination, they were to look for an eagle perched on a cactus. At that location, they were to build their city and honor Huitzilopochtli with human sacrifices. The city they built was called Tenochtitlán, the city of Tenoch. Aztec Foundation Myth Hernán Cortés • April 21, 1519 (Good Friday), • • • • Cortés landed on an island off eastern Gulf Coast with 11 galleons, 550 soldiers and sailors, and 16 horses Staked claim for God and King and founded a settlement Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz Sailed to Cozumel and rescued de Aguilar from the Mayas – valuable Mayan interpreter Took Malintzin/Marina as Nahuatl interpreter and mistress Burnt the remainder of his fleet and proceeded on to Tenochtitlán, making allies of tribes hostile to the Aztecs. La Malinche c. 1505- c.1529 • Malinalli (Malintzin) was born to a noble family, but sold to a Tabascan chief by her mother to ensure her half-brother’s inheritance • Brought from her native Nahuatl-speaking home of Veracruz to the Yucatan, she learned the Maya language La Malinche • Given to the Spaniards by the Maya, she was baptized as Marina in 1519. • She began to work for the Spanish as an interpreter between the Nahuatl and Maya and quickly learned Spanish. La Malinche • She became Cortés’s interpreter, confidante and mistress, called "la lengua de Cortés" (Cortés's tongue, or interpreter) • Bore him a son, Martín, the first mestizo of historical note • “After God we owe this conquest of New Spain to Doña Marina.” – Cortés José Clemente Orozco Cortés and Malinche Moctezuma 17th C. portrait, artist unknown • Emperor of the Aztecs, Moctezuma was aware of Cortés’s approach • He sent Cortés a cordial message and gifts but warned against approaching Tenochtitlan • The gold and finery whetted the Spaniards’ greed • Although Moctezuma commanded a huge army, he feared to greet Cortés with a hostile force because of ancient legend The Prophecy of Quetzalcoatl’s Return • Ancient legend prophesied that Quetzalcoatl, the Plumed Serpent, the bearded, fair-skinned Toltec ruler-god would return in the year Ce Acatl to reclaim his kingdom. http://www.cedarcreekclay.com/ Omens of Return • Lake Texcoco flooded Tenochtitlan • The temple of Huitzlopochtli caught fire • The voice of woman wailing in the night disturbed the city • Immense comets shot through the sky • A column of fire appeared every night for a year Tenochtitlán • The last city the Spanish had seen was Seville, the largest in Spain, population: 60,000. London, Europe’s largest city, had a population of 100,000. • Its site was fixed by the god Huitzilopochtli, who sent a sign in the form of a great eagle Tenochtitlán • Priests were everywhere. Like Spanish priests, they wore long dark robes. But the robes were stained with human blood, and their long hair was clotted with it, and while some of the blood was their own, most came from the human victims they slew daily. • An essential part of the rituals conducted in the shrines crowning the shining pyramids was human sacrifice. Sacrifice of Prisoners To Huitzlipotchli Códice Magliabecchi., siglo XVI The Beginning of the End • Cortés met little resistence and on November 8, 1519 he crossed • • • • the causeway over Lake Texcoco to enter Tenochtitlán. Moctezuma personally went out to meet Cortés and his men. Doña Marina interpreted what Moctezuma said for Cortés: "Lord, you are weary. The journey has tired you, but now you have arrived on earth. You have come to your city of México." Then Cortés responded through Marina: "Tell Moctezuma that we are his friends and that there is nothing to fear. We have waited long to meet with him." (Florentine Codex) Within a week Cortés seized the emperor, put him in chains and held him hostage. • Cortés left Tenochtitlan to deal with a Spanish rival. • In his absence, the Spanish attacked the citizens during a religious festival. • The Aztecs rebelled. • Cortes tried to use Moctezuma to appeal for peace, but the people hurled stones and arrows at him • The Spaniards threw the body of Moctezuma into a canal Death of Moctezuma La Noche Triste • Cuitláhuac, Moctezuma’s successor, besieiged the Spaniards • June 30, 1520, the Spaniards tried to escape but were attacked by the Aztecs – hundreds died • Cuitláhuac died of smallpox, succeeded by Cuauhtemoc • Cortés regrouped with Tlaxcalan allies Cuauhtemoc Last Aztec Emperor • • • • • January, 1521, Cortés reentered valley of Mexico and demanded surrender Cuauhtemoc refused Cortés attacked with a newly built fleet and besieged Tenochtitlan After a valiant resistance and an 80 day seige, the Aztecs, overcome by smallpox and famine, surrendered The Spaniards lay the Aztec Empire to waste, burned Tenochtilan, and levelled the temples. The Conquest of Peru 1531-1572 Incan Empire 1438-1572 The Incan Empire in Peru • The Incan Empire was held together by military force and linked by an extensive road system. • In 1548 Huayna Capac became the Sapa (Supreme) Inca • In 1527 he received word that strange people with white skin and hair on their faces had arrived in floating wooden houses on the northern Peruvian coast. • By the end of 1527, a smallpox epidemic arrived in Peru killing over 200,000 people including Huayna Capac Incan Roads Incan Civilization Heavily indebted to Chimu civilization and the Lords of Chan Chan Master assimilationists Reciprocity: Mutual commitment between state and citizen Mit’a: labor tax Master road builders Gold artifacts Quipus: databanks in colored knotted cords Civil War • After Huayna Capac died, his two sons Huascar and Atahualpa vied to become Sapa Inca. • During the five-year civil war, hundreds of thousands of people were killed. • The army of Atahualpa captured Huascar and executed him. • Atahualpa declared himself the Sapa Inca and started to go south to Cuzco. • Word continued to come to Atahualpa about the approach of strange, bearded white people who wanted to meet with him. . . Pizarro Meets Atahualpa Chronology of Conquest • • • • • • • • • • 1526–1529 – Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro make first contact with Inca Empire at Tumbes, the last Inca stronghold in the northern coast 1528–1529 – Pizarro returns to Spain where he is granted by the Queen of Spain the license to conquer Peru 1531–1532 – Pizarro's third voyage to Peru, Atahualpa captured by Spaniards 1533 – Atahualpa is executed; Almagro arrives; Pizarro captures Cuzco and installs seventeen year old Manco Inca as new Inca emperor 1535 – Pizarro founded the city of Lima; Almagro leaves for Chile 1537 – Almagro seizes Cuzco from Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro. Manco flees to Vilcabamba, the new Inca capital 1538 – Hernando Pizarro executes Diego de Almagro 1541 – Francisco Pizarro is murdered by Diego de Almagro II and other supporters of Almagro 1544 – Manco Inca is murdered by supporters of Diego de Almagro. The Inca do not stop their revolt. 1572 – Viceroy of Peru, Francisco Toledo, declares war on Vilcabamba; Vilcabamba is sacked and Túpac Amaru, the last Inca emperor, is captured and executed in Cuzco. The Inca capital of Vilcabamba is abandoned. Death of Atahualpa, the last Sapa Inca on 29 August 1533 (Luis Montero) Meanwhile, back in La Florida… Panfilo de Narvaez arrived near Tampa Bay in 1528 with about 400 men. The Uzita were initially friendly. When the Spanish found a small amount of gold, they tortured the Indians in their search for more gold, silver, and enslaved natives to serve as guides and burden bearers. Panfilo de Narvaez Unwilling or unable to reveal the location of any treasure, Chief Hirrahigua had been forced to watch as his Mother was torn to shreds before his eyes by fierce Spanish war dogs. Narvaez then ordered the nose of the chief to be cut off. Hunting for Gold The Indians told them that they could find the gold in the land of the Apalachee Narvaez divided his men, sending part of them by ships while he himself marched north by foot The four ships were told to coast north until another good harbor was found, finding nothing they returned to New Spain (Cuba). In June 1528 Narvaez reached the area of Apalachee nation on the Georgia--Florida border. All the villages in the area were deserted and the natives were hiding. The Apalachees waged guerilla-war against Narvaez: the march forward changed into a route The Spanish built rafts and drifted along the coast of Florida, landing near Galveston. After eight years only three men survived, arriving in Mexico City: Cabeza de Vaca, Oviedo, and Estevanico of Azamor Marooned • Cabeza De Vaca: After a brief period of glory and renown, De Vaca returned to Spain and wrote a book which with vivid description and detail reports the entire de Narvaez-de Vaca adventure. But he fell out of favor and died in exile in Africa • Estevanico of Azamor: a black Muslim from Morocco, he mesmerized the Mexican natives. He led two great exploration expeditions into California, Arizona and New Mexico, but he finally overplayed his hand. On the second, he had become so arrogant in his treatment of the Indians, they lynched him. The Original Pocahontas? The frieze of the Rotunda of the United States Capitol Juan Ortiz and Princess Hirrihigua In 1528, Juan Ortiz, a member of the expedition sent from Cuba to find Panfilo De Narvaez, was captured by Chief Hirrihigua, who hated the white men because of the violence of Narvaez. Juan Ortiz was condemned to death but Princess Hirrihigua, eldest daughter of the chief, pleaded with her father and saved his life. Princess Hirrihigua saved Ortiz from death three times. In 1539, Hernando De Soto rescued Ortiz who became his guide and interpreter. Hernando De Soto Hernando De Soto had had been with Pizarro in Peru and wanted to find his own goldcountry to conquer. In 1538 De Soto sailed from Spain with 600 experienced soldiers, weapons and livestock. De Soto’s Landing • In 1539 De Soto reached Florida, and made a landing at Tampa Bay. • He conquered the nearest village, and from there pillaged the whole area, attacking every village within his reach. De Soto died of fever in 1542 somewhere in Mississippi – he was buried in the river to hide his . body from angry Indians. The remnants of his men finally managed to build boats and sail to Mexico The frieze of the Rotunda of the United States Capitol Spanish Colonization of Florida Pedro Menéndez de Aviléz was sent to Florida to counteract threats posed by the French colony. Menéndez landed on the coast at St. Augustine in 1565. After establishing a base of operations, Menéndez sailed with five ships to Fort Caroline. When the Spanish sailed into the mouth of the St. Johns River, they found the French ships there and tried to board them. Unsuccessful at this attempt, they sailed southward back to St. Augustine, and began to build a fort. Aviles marched his soldiers overland to Fort Caroline, made a surprise attack, and massacred all the inhabitants save those who declared themselves Catholic, the muscians, and some of the women and children. French soldiers, who later surrendered to Aviles, were also massacred at Matanzas Inlet. This massacre put an end to France's attempts at colonization in Florida Aviles de Menendez, conqueror of the Huguenots and founder of St. Augustine, was committed to building a permanent settlement in Florida. Ft. San Marcos in St. Augustine begun 1672 The Spanish fort and town of St. Augustine that became the first continuous European settlement in North America.