The Changes and Continuity over Time in Europe Paul Kondratyev, Anna Kheyfets, Kyle Oleksiuk, Maggie Gutmann, Eyrna Jones-Heisler, Jared May, and Nadia Saleh Classical Era (100 CE – 600 CE) Religion in Rome • Started pagan, used as an explanation for phenomena and used as a source of deities to pay tribute to for good fortune. • Christianity was spread peacefully by Saint Paul, but received violent backlash as monotheism intersected the belief that the emperor is divine. • Emperor Constantine had a vision of “the sign of Christ”, which invoked him to paint it onto the shields of his soldiers, which he believed was the leading force of him winning a battle; this caused Christianity to become more popular. • Under Theodosius in 380, Christianity became the official religion in Rome. Partition of Rome • The Roman Empire spanned Mediterranean world, and although powerful, lacked sustainability. • In order to prevent collapse Diocletian split up the empire. • The East Roman Empire and the West Roman empire had separate leaders. • The Western Roman Empire ironically collapsed under Romulus Agustulus, which led to the formation of many countries in Europe. • The Eastern Roman Empire (along with the city of Constantinople) thrived and became the Byzantine Empire and then a thousand years later the Ottoman empire. Partition of Roman Empire Collapse of Roman Empire into the European countries • The Eastern Roman empire survived and evolved into the Byzantine Empire and later the Ottoman Empire. • This was due to strong internal stability and Justinian’s code of laws. • The West Roman empire lacked this kind of stability and collapsed into the multitude of countries in Europe. Regional and Transregional Interactions (600 CE – 1450 CE) Interregional trade in Europe • From 600 – 1450 interregional trade flourished, improving conditions for the wealthy, whilst Christianity spread. • Up until the 11th century, trade was minimal, as the manors were self-sufficient. • The iron industry, which was fairly large by the 11th century, fueled trade between different regions. • In the 1200’s annual trade fairs were held, and many cities grew due to trade and the manufacture of goods. • In the mid 1300’s the Black Plague rapidly reduced the population, causing an urban revival. Results of Interregional Trade • New technologies began being available, such as the harvesting of wind and water energy. • Social mobility allowed due to cities. • Crusades inspired by Religion took place, but ended with new trade routes. • The cultural contact due to the crusades spread many ideas and caused changes in thought. • Christianity continued to grow, and by the 1450’s the Renaissance began, a cultural and philosophical movement began, utilizing religious symbols. Political changes and continuities in Western Europe • Western Roman Empire was very destabilized, causing the creation of the Carolingian empire, and then the Holy Roman Empire. • During Charlemagne’s rule of the Carolingian empire, the empire included most of Western Europe, excluding the British Isles and Spain. • Charlemagne’s empire was then broken up between his grandsons. • Meanwhile, the invasion of William of Normandy into England led to his establishment of a long-lasting hierarchical feudal system that served the king Political changes and continuities in Eastern Europe • The Eastern Roman Empire remained stabilized until it’s interaction with the neighboring Muslim peoples. • The Eastern Roman Empire began fracturing, until it was sacked by the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, which led to the creation of the Ottoman empire. • In Northeastern Europe there was very little political structure during the first millennium. • The Varangians led the rise of Kievan Russia, which was an organization of the Slavs. • The later Mongol invasion of Kievan Russia destroyed existing power structures, decentralizing power away from cities, and in its wake allowed for the formation of Russian autocracy, as well as rise of the states of Lithuania and Serbia. Cultural and Intellectual changes(1450 CE – 1700 CE) Cultural and Intellectual • Religion was replaced with Science and people began questioning their societies. • More education for the people, and more rights for women, such as being able to work and no longer being forced into marriage. • Poor remained poor, many risked starvation and were unable to do anything about this. • Scientific Revolution bred thinkers like Nicholas Copernicus and Galileo Galilei, as well as inventions like the printing press which was able to spread these ideas. • Bourgeoisie promoted education by building schools. Religion in Western Europe (1450 – Present) • Driving force for unity of Europe beyond individual nations. • Catholic Church and Pope worked to benefit themselves, dictated lives of people. • In 1517, Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the doors of churches to state his qualms with the Catholic Church and their selling of indulgences(guarantee to go to Heaven) • Printing press helped spread the 95 Theses. • People who followed him were the Lutherans. • Anti-Semitism grew, as Jews were the ones who killed Jesus. • Anti-Semitism changed how people treated each other and it fueled many events like the Spanish Inquisition, the Holocaust and the Dreyus Affair. Religion in Eastern Europe (1450 – Present) • In Russia the Church influenced culture and politics, the Romanovs encouraged loyalty to the Church until they were overthrown by the provisional government and the Bolsheviks. • The Bolsheviks, being communist, were also Atheists, so they banned and persecuted Religion. • Religion came back during the fall of Communism in the Soviet Union , as religion is also what supported the fall. • Although there was the holocaust, Anti-Semitism decreased as Theodore Herzl, who led a Zionist movement called for the Jewish state of Israel, which was established a few years after the Holocaust. Industrialization (1750 CE – 1900 CE) European Growth • Increased trade, improved communication and transportation. • The food revolution led to high population growth and urbanization. • Movement to cities cause the invention of many new technologies to get work done faster and cheaper. • Inventions include the spinning jenny and the flying shuttle. • The invention of the steam engine combined with railroad systems led to the rapid growth of trade. • Telegraph invented by Samuel Morse led to easier and faster communication. Setbacks • Work force shrunk because less workers were hired. • Gap between the rich and poor grew. • The peasants were so dispensable that they began to be mistreated by the rich factory owners. They worked long hours, for little pay, in horrid conditions. The Factory Act of 1833, set standards for some conditions for the workers. • In 1789, the French Revolution against absolutism took place by the bourgeoisie who wanted more free capitalism. However, Napoleon ended up taking over, and continued industrializing, but the poor were still stepped on. Yields of Industrialization • Industrialization spread throughout Europe, and more factories began to pop up in cities. • New ideologies began to be formed with the growing proletariat class in a society revolving around the economy. • Adam Smith’s idea of capitalism and laissez-faire turned into socialism and Marxism. • Marx and Engels created socialism because of how awful the upper class was treating the lower class. They believed that the proletariat workers would take over and push the bourgeoisie out of their power. Nationalism and Global Change Nationalism in Eastern Europe • The rise of nationalism in Eastern Europe unified people who shared ethnicity, religious beliefs, language, and heritage. • Once nationalism rose in the Ottoman empire, the Ottoman empire began being destabilized. • In 1815, 39 states created the German Confederation, which was controlled by the Austrian empire. • In 1866, Otto von Bismarck, under Prussian ruler, King Wilhelm, went to war with the Austrians (Seven Weeks War) and then with the French (Franco-Prussian war) in 1871 to gain the German states and unite all the German speaking people. • In 1915, the Young Turks murdered hundreds of Armenians, because they were revolting to become independent and this became known as the Armenian Genocide. Nationalism in Eastern Europe cont. • In 1914 the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was killed by a Serb, which resulted in the first World War. • Nationalism brought rise to the Fascist party in 1933 in Germany, who held the belief that they were the “Aryan Master Race” and needed to find living space. • This ideology led to Hitler’s rise to power and the second world war, with an emphasis on anti-Semitism. • The Russian empire which was comprised of many different ethnicities was united under the USSR by Vladimir Lenin. • In the 1980’s nationalist movements rose in the USSR, which is what ultimately led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Global trade and Eastern Europe • Up until the rise of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe lagged behind Western Europe, and this led to the rise Marxism which heavily affected Eastern Europe and its trade. • In the 1920’s the Soviet Union, under Joseph Stalin, industrialized in a very short period of time, due to Stalin’s Five Year Plans, which doubles the output of industry, whilst quintupling the output of electricity. • The Soviet Union was therefore able to industrialize faster than any other nation that came before it. • Due to it’s growth the Soviet Union exported much more than it imported, maintaining self-sufficiency. Global trade and Western Europe • The Industrial Revolution led to the replacement of manual labor by machines. • Production rates grew faster than they were able to supply raw materials for, which led to imperialism. • Western European countries would imperialize regions like India and Africa, from whom they would buy goods to resell to their colonies. This led to very large profit for the Imperialists. • Revolution resulted, and Western European countries were forced to free their colonies after World War II. • Trade again began to rise post-war as the European Union forced cooperation between the western European countries, and the technology made available by the time period (e.g. automobiles, trains, planes, cargo ships) allowed trade to flourish on a grand scale Sources: • Bulliet, Richard W. The Earth and Its Peoples. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. Print. • Byzantine Empire." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/byzantine-empire>. • "The Fall Of Rome." About.com Ancient / Classical History. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/fallofrome/a/Dorrington .htm>. • "Religion." Religion. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://www.roman-empire.net/religion/religion.html>. Sources: • "History of Europe : Social Upheaval." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 02 May 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/195896/history -of- Europe/58406/Social-upheaval>. • Princeton Review Cracking the AP World History Exam, 2013. [S.l.]: Random House, 2012. Print. • "What Is Anti-Semitism?" What Is Anti-Semitism? AntiDefamation League, 2001. Web. 02 May 2013.