PPTREVIEWHEART

Report
1
• Which layer of the heart allows it to act as a
pump?
•
•
•
•
a. Epicardium
b. Myocardium
c. Pericardium
d. Endocardium
2
• Which slinglike structure supports the heart?
•
•
•
•
a.Pericardium
b.Chordae tendineae
c.Myocardium
d.Endocardium
3
• What is the hardest working cardiac chamber
and therefore has the thickest myocardium?
•
•
•
•
a.Right atrium
b.Right ventricle
c.Left atrium
d.Left ventricle
4
• The right ventricle pumps blood to the
•
•
•
•
a. right atrium.
b. pulmonary veins.
c. pulmonary artery.
d. aorta.
5
• Vessel(s) that carry(ies) blood from the
pulmonary capillaries to the left atrium is (are)
the
•
•
•
•
a. Aorta
b. Pulmonary artery
c. Pulmonary veins
d. Vena cava
6
• The aorta receives blood from the
•
•
•
•
a. right ventricle.
b. pulmonary veins.
c. pulmonary artery.
d. left ventricle.
7
• Blood flows from the right atrium through
which atrioventricular valve to the right
ventricle?
•
•
•
•
a. Bicuspid
b. Mitral
c. Pulmonic
d. Tricuspid
8
• Which of the following structures “sees”
unoxygenated blood?
•
•
•
•
a. Aorta
b. Left ventricle
c. Pulmonary artery
d. Pulmonary veins
9
• Which of the following “sees” oxygenated
blood?
•
•
•
•
a. Vena cava
b. Pulmonary veins
c. Right atrium
d. Pulmonic valve
10
• Chordae tendineae are not associated with
which valve?
•
•
•
•
a. Aortic
b. Mitral
c. Tricuspid
d. Bicuspid
11
• With which of the following is “lubb-dupp”
associated?
•
•
•
•
a. Myocardial contraction
b. Ventricular depolarization
c. Closing of heart valves
d. Diffusion of O2 from the lungs to the blood
in the pulmonary capillaries
12
• Which of the following supplies oxygenated
blood to the heart muscle?
•
•
•
•
a. Coronary arteries
b. Pulmonary artery
c. Pulmonary veins
d. Cardiac veins
13
• Where does the cardiac action potential
(cardiac impulse) normally originate?
•
•
•
•
a. AV node
b. Purkinje fibers
c. Ectopic focus
d. SA node
14
• The pacemaker of the heart is located in the
upper wall of the
•
•
•
•
a. right atrium.
b. right ventricle.
c. left atrium.
d. left ventricle.
15
• Referring to the ECG, the P wave represents
•
•
•
•
a. atrial contraction.
b. ventricular relaxation.
c. atrial depolarization.
d. atrial repolarization.
16
• Referring to the ECG, the QRS complex
represents ventricular
•
•
•
•
a. contraction.
b. repolarization.
c. relaxation.
d. depolarization.
17
• Which structure connects the cusps of the AV
valves to the ventricles?
•
•
•
•
a. Purkinje fibers
b. AV node
c. Bundle of His
d. Chordae tendineae
18
• What are the conducting fibers that rapidly
spread the electrical signal throughout the
ventricles?
•
•
•
•
a. Bundle of His
b. Purkinje fibers
c. SA node
d. AV node
19
• Which of the following is least related to the
mitral valve?
•
•
•
•
a. Left heart
b. Bicuspid
c. Semilunar
d. Chordae tendineae
20
• All of the following are electrical terms except
•
•
•
•
a. sarcomere.
b. depolarization.
c. action potential.
d. repolarization.
21
• Which of the following must precede
ventricular contraction?
•
•
•
•
a. Ventricular relaxation
b. “Lubb-dupp”
c. Ventricular depolarization
d. Closing of the AV valves
22
• Which of the following semilunar valves
“sees” oxygenated blood?
•
•
•
•
a. Mitral
b. Bicuspid
c. Aortic
d. Pulmonic
23
• The correct sequence is: blood flows from the
right atrium to the right ventricle to the
pulmonary artery to the
•
•
•
•
a. pulmonary veins.
b. coronary arteries.
c. pulmonary capillaries.
d. vena cava.
24
• What event causes the pulmonic valve to
open?
• a. The P wave
• b. An increase in the pressure within the right
ventricle
• c. “Lubb-dupp”
• d. Contraction of the chordae tendineae
25
• Which layer of the heart has actin, myosin,
and intercalated discs?
•
•
•
•
a. Myocardium
b. Endocardium
c. Epicardium
d. Pericardium
26
• The pericardium is a part of the
•
•
•
•
a. myocardium.
b. diaphragm.
c. epicardium.
d. endocardium.
27
• The mitral and the bicuspid valves
• a. are semilunar valves.
• b. are both located on the right side of the
heart.
• c. “see” only unoxygenated blood.
• d. are the same valves.
28
• The pulmonic and aortic valves
• a. are atrioventricular valves.
• b. “see” only oxygenated blood.
• c. are attached to the ventricular walls by
chordae tendineae.
• d. are semilunar valves.
29
• The correct sequence is: blood flows from the
pulmonary capillaries to the pulmonary veins
to the left atrium to the left ventricle to the
•
•
•
•
a. vena cava.
b. pulmonary artery.
c. aorta.
d. circle of Willis.
30
• The atrioventricular node (AV node)
• a. is the pacemaker of the heart.
• b. is located in the upper part of the right atrium.
• c. has a rate that is normally faster than the SA
node.
• d. delays the electrical signal coming from the
atria into the ventricles.
31
• The purpose of which structure is to delay the
spread of the signal from the atrium to the
ventricles?
•
•
•
•
a. SA node
b. Purkinje fibers
c. Bundle of His
d. AV node
32
• Which of the following is an electrical event?
•
•
•
•
a. “Lubb-dupp”
b. Actin and myosin interaction
c. Murmur
d. Depolarization
33
• Which of the following is a result of
ventricular contraction?
• a. The AV valves open.
• b. The semilunar valves close.
• c. Blood is pumped into the pulmonary artery
and the aorta.
• d. Blood flows back into the atria.
34
• Under what condition is blood most likely to
flow “backward” (e.g., from the left ventricle
back into the left atrium)?
•
•
•
•
a. Pulmonary artery hypertension
b. Left ventricular hypertrophy
c. An insufficient mitral valve
d. Pulmonary edema
35
• What are ventricles “doing” during atrial
contraction?
•
•
•
•
a. Pumping blood into the great vessels
b. Closing their AV valves
c. Relaxing
d. Opening their semilunar valves
36
• The Purkinje fibers
• a. open valves.
• b. pull on the cusps of the valves.
• c. conduct electrical signals throughout the
ventricles.
• d. close valves.
37
• Which cavity first receives unoxygenated
blood from the vena cava?
•
•
•
•
a. Right ventricle
b. Left atrium
c. Left ventricle
d. Right atrium
38
• What is the name of the valve that prevents
backflow of blood
•
•
•
•
a. Mitral
b. Pulmonic
c. Semilunar
d. Tricuspid
39
• What is the cause of the heart sounds “lubbdupp”?
• a. Closing of the heart valves
• b. Flow of blood through the coronary arteries
• c. The electrical signal as it moves through the AV
node
• d. The firing of the autonomic nerves to the SA
node
40
• Which of the following is not true of the heart?
• a. The heart is located within the mediastinum.
• b. The apex is located left of the sternal midline
at the level of the fifth intercostal space.
• c. The base of the heart is located at the level of
the second rib.
• d. The pericardium is composed of actin and
myosin.
41
• Which of the following is least descriptive of the
myocardium?
• a. Cardiac muscle composed of actin and myosin
arranged in sarcomeres
• b. Thicker in the ventricles than the atria
• c. Thicker in the left ventricle than the right
ventricle
• d. Thicker in the left atrium than the right
ventricle
42
• Which of the following is a function of a valve?
• a. Regulates the direction of the flow of blood
through the heart
• b. Regulates the amount of oxygen bound to
hemoglobin
• c. Regulates heart rate
• d. Directs the movement of the cardiac impulse
43
• Which of the following is true of the structures of the
electrical conduction system?
• a. The AV valve is the pacemaker.
• b. In normal sinus rhythm, the electrical signal arises
within the SA node.
• c. The His-Purkinje system spreads the electrical system
from the right atrium to the left atrium.
• d. The purpose of the AV node is to increase the speed
at which the cardiac impulse moves from the atria to
the ventricles.
44
• Which of the following is least true of the aortic
valve?
• a. It is also called the left semilunar valve.
• b. It “sees” oxygenated blood.
• c. Blood flows from the ventricle through this
valve into the pulmonary artery.
• d. An incompetent aortic valve allows blood to
leak from the aorta back into the left ventricle.
45
• An accumulation of excess fluid in the
pericardial space
• a. causes external compression of the heart.
• b. depresses the SA node, thereby eliminating
pacemaker activity.
• c. causes valvular stenosis.
• d. causes a left-to-right shunt.
46
• A hole in the interventricular septum causes
• a. a right-to-left shunt.
• b. extreme cyanosis.
• c. blood to shunt from the left ventricle to the
right ventricle.
• d. blood to shunt from the left ventricle to the
pulmonary artery.
47
• Which structure “sees” oxygenated blood?
•
•
•
•
a. Tricuspid valve
b. Pulmonary artery
c. Pulmonary veins
d. Right semilunar valve
48
• Which group is incorrect?
• a. Semilunar valves: pulmonic, aortic
• b. Atrioventricular valves: tricuspid, bicuspid,
mitral
• c. Structures that carry oxygenated blood:
pulmonary veins, left ventricle, aorta
• d. Structures that carry unoxygenated blood:
right ventricle, venae cavae, pulmonary veins
49
• Which group is incorrect?
• a. Semilunar valves: pulmonic, aortic
• b. Structures that carry oxygenated blood:
pulmonary veins, left ventricle, aorta
• c. Layers of the heart: epicardium, myocardium,
endocardium
• d. Abnormal heart rates: tachycardia,
bradycardia, normal sinus rhythm
50
• Which group is incorrect?
• a. Atrioventricular valves: tricuspid, bicuspid,
mitral
• b. Layers of the heart: epicardium, myocardium,
endocardium
• c. Abnormal heart rates: tachycardia, bradycardia
• d. Parts of the conduction system: SA node, AV
node, bundle of His, Purkinje fibers, medulla
oblongata
51
• Which of the following is true of the
myocardium?
• a. Contains thick and thin filaments
• b. Contains actin and myosin
• c. Is thicker in the left ventricle than in the
right ventricle
• d. All of the above
52
• During ventricular contraction, the
• a. AV valves close in response to
intraventricular pressure.
• b. ECG is displaying the T wave.
• c. Semilunar valves close, causing S1.
• d. ECG is displaying the P-R interval.
53
• Which of the following is most related to
“lubb” (of the lubb-dupp duo)?
• a. Called S1
• b. Caused by the closure of the AV valves
• c. Occurs in response to ventricular
contraction
• d. All of the above
54
• S2 is
• a. caused by the closure of the AV valves at
the beginning of ventricular contraction.
• b. the second heart sound.
• c. the heart sound caused by the sliding of
actin and myosin.
• d. All of the above are true.
55
• The purpose of the right heart is to pump
blood
• a. to the systemic circulation.
• b. into the aorta.
• c. to the left anterior descending and
circumflex arteries.
• d. to the lungs for oxygenation.
56
• Which of the following is not considered a
“great” vessel?
•
•
•
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a. Left anterior descending artery
b. Aorta
c. Venae cavae
d. Pulmonary artery
57
• Which of the following spaces does not
contain the heart?
•
•
•
•
a. Thoracic cavity
b. Ventral cavity
c. Dorsal cavity
d. Mediastinum
58
• The semilunar valves
• a. receive blood from the contracting
ventricles.
• b. are anchored by chordae tendineae.
• c. “see” only oxygenated blood.
• d. “see” only unoxygenated blood.
59
• Cells that spontaneously depolarize from resting
membrane potential to threshold potential
•
•
•
•
a. are called pacemaker cells.
b. normally arise within the chordae tendineae.
c. are restricted to the SA node.
d. are stored within the pericardium.
60
• Cells that spontaneously depolarize from resting
membrane potential to threshold potential
•
•
•
•
a. are called pacemaker cells.
b. normally arise within the chordae tendineae.
c. are restricted to the SA node.
d. are stored within the pericardium.
61
• Stenosis of which valve causes right
ventricular hypertrophy?
•
•
•
•
a. Mitral
b. Tricuspid
c. Right semilunar
d. Left semilunar
62
• Which of the following is true about the left
ventricular myocardium?
• a. Pumps blood into the pulmonary artery
• b. Is caused by the sliding of actin and myosin
• c. Receives oxygenated blood from the
precordium
• d. Contains unoxygenated blood
63
• What is located at the second rib and fifth
intercostal space?
•
•
•
•
a. Base and apex of the heart
b. Semilunar valves
c. AV valves
d. SA node and AV nodes
64
• The bicuspid and mitral valves
•
•
•
•
a. are semilunar valves.
b. “see” only unoxygenated blood.
c. "see" only oxygenated blood
d. are exit valves.
65
• What are the two phases of the ventricular
action potential (cardiac impulse)?
•
•
•
•
a. Systole and diastole
b. Filling and ejecting
c. Depolarization and repolarization
d. P wave and T wave
66
• Which of the following electrical events is
caused by the outflow (efflux) of K+?
•
•
•
•
a. P-R interval
b. Depolarization
c. QRS complex
d. Repolarization
67
• In normal sinus rhythm (NSR), the
• a. cardiac impulse originates in the sinoatrial
node.
• b. action potential originates in the AV node.
• c. AV node activates the SA node.
• d. action potential is generated by the
sympathetic nerve.
68
• During ventricular filling, the
•
•
•
•
a. semilunar valves are open.
b. AV valves are closed.
c. QRS complex is “happening.”
d. ventricles are relaxed.
69
• Heme contains
•
•
•
•
a. albumin.
b. plasma.
c. iron.
d. erythropoietin.
70
• Erythropoietin
• a. is secreted by the kidneys.
• b. stimulates the bone marrow to produce
RBCs.
• c. is released in response to hypoxemia.
• d. All of the above are true.
71
• Which of the following is least associated with
hemostasis?
•
•
•
•
a. Coagulation
b. Platelet plug
c. Jaundice
d. Blood vessel spasm
72
• An antithrombin agent
•
•
•
•
a. causes jaundice.
b. prevents blood coagulation.
c. fights infection.
d. stimulates the synthesis of hemoglobin.
73
• Which of the following is most associated with
a blood clot?
•
•
•
•
a. Agglutination
b. Hemophilia
c. Fibrin strands
d. Rh factor
74
• What is the normal pH of blood?
•
•
•
•
a. 7.00 to 7.45
b. 7.35 to 7.45
c. 6.92 to 7.25
d. 7.45 to 7.80
75
• What is the name of the condition caused by a
diet that is deficient in iron?
•
•
•
•
a. Leukopenia
b. Anemia
c. Jaundice
d. Kernicterus
76
• Which type of blood is called the universal
donor?
•
•
•
•
a. O
b. AB
c. A
d. B
77
• Which of the following is caused by
agglutination of the RBCs?
•
•
•
•
a. Hemolysis
b. Coagulation
c. Crenation
d. Hemostasis
78
• What is the breakdown product of heme?
•
•
•
•
a. Thrombin
b. Plasmin
c. Bilirubin
d. Albumin
79
• Which of the following types of blood can a
person with type O blood receive safely?
•
•
•
•
a. A type
b. B type
c. AB type
d. O type
80
• Which of the following is related to the white
blood cell?
•
•
•
•
a. Phagocytosis
b. Oxygen transport
c. Hemoglobin
d. Bilirubin
81
• Which type of blood is called the universal
recipient?
•
•
•
•
a. Type O
b. Type AB
c. Type A
d. Type B
82
• Which of the following is characteristic of the
platelet?
•
•
•
•
a. Granulocyte
b. Bilirubin
c. O2 transport
d. Stickiness
83
• To which component of the red blood cell
does oxygen loosely bind?
•
•
•
•
a. Cell membrane
b. Globin portion of the hemoglobin
c. Iron molecule within heme
d. Bilirubin component of the heme
84
• At the end of 120 days, the red blood cell
• a. is removed from the circulation and broken
down.
• b. becomes known as a “poly.”
• c. becomes known as a reticulocyte.
• d. is converted to fibrin.
85
• Plasma
• a. gives blood its red color.
• b. is the primary oxygen-carrying part of the
blood.
• c. is considered intracellular fluid.
• d. is the fluid part of the blood.
86
• Which of the following conditions is most
likely to cause erythroblastosis?
•
•
•
•
a. The baby is Rh– and the mother is Rh–.
b. The baby is Rh+ and the mother is Rh+.
c. The baby is Rh+ and the mother is Rh–.
d. The baby is Rh+ and the mother is type A+.
87
• Which of the following conditions is caused by
an overdose of heparin or warfarin sodium
(Coumadin)?
•
•
•
•
a. Bleeding
b. Infection
c. Jaundice
d. Thrombosis
88
• Which of the following does the prothrombin
time measure?
•
•
•
•
a. The amount of oxygen in the blood
b. Clotting activity of the blood
c. Bone marrow activity
d. The degree or intensity of jaundice
89
• Donor blood is typed and cross-matched with
the recipient’s blood to prevent which
condition?
•
•
•
•
a. Infection
b. Myelosuppression
c. Agglutination
d. Petechiae formation
90
• Both the red blood cell and white blood cell
• a. are classified as granulocytes or
agranulocytes.
• b. contain iron that acts as a binding site for
oxygen.
• c. contain hemoglobin.
• d. are produced in the bone marrow.
91
• Which of the following is least descriptive of
blood?
• a. The average man has 4 to 6 L of blood.
• b. The normal pH of blood is 7.35 to 7.45.
• c. Oxygenated blood is redder than unoxygenated
blood.
• d. Water is three to five times more viscous than
blood.
92
• Which anticoagulant is secreted by mast cells
(basophils)?
•
•
•
•
a. Plasmin
b. EPO
c. Vitamin K
d. Heparin
93
• Which of the following is true of iron?
•
•
•
•
a. Is in the heme part of hemoglobin
b. Is necessary for erythropoiesis
c. Binds reversibly to oxygen
d. All of the above
94
• A person who is taking warfarin (Coumadin) is advised
to limit the intake of spinach and broccoli because they
• a. are irritating to the lining of the digestive tract and
can cause bleeding.
• b. interfere with the absorption of vitamin K by the
digestive tract.
• c. contain lots of vitamin K, the antidote to Coumadin
therapy.
• d. contain excess extrinsic factor.
95
• Systole and diastole describe the function of
the
•
•
•
•
a. pericardium.
b. SA node.
c. myocardium.
d. mediastinum.
96
• During atrial systole, the
•
•
•
•
a. AV valves are closed.
b. ventricles are relaxed.
c. ventricles are in systole.
d. semilunar valves are open.
97
• What happens during ventricular diastole?
•
•
•
•
a. The ventricles are filling with blood.
b. All semilunar valves are open.
c. Both AV valves are closed.
d. Blood is pumped to the lungs and systemic
circulation.
98
• What term refers to the amount of blood
pumped by the ventricle in one beat?
•
•
•
•
a. Cardiac output
b. Blood volume
c. Hematocrit
d. Stroke volume
99
• Which term refers to the amount of blood
pumped by the heart in 1 minute?
•
•
•
•
a. Stroke volume
b. Cardiac output
c. Starling’s law of the heart
d. Inotropic effect
100
• Decreased blood flow through the coronary
arteries is most likely to cause
•
•
•
•
a. valve damage.
b. pulmonary edema.
c. angina pectoris.
d. bradycardia.
101
• Which term refers to a heart rate less than 60
beats/min?
•
•
•
•
a. Bradycardia
b. Heart block
c. Fight-or-flight response
d. Tachycardia
102
• What is the term for the sequence of events
that occur during one heartbeat?
•
•
•
•
a. Stroke volume
b. Cardiac output
c. Cardiac cycle
d. Systole
103
• Cardiac output is determined by heart rate
and
•
•
•
•
a. systemic vascular resistance.
b. stroke volume.
c. hematocrit.
d. hemoglobin concentration.
104
• An ejection fraction of 30% is
• a. normal.
• b. characteristic of a healthy person who is
engaged in aerobic exercise.
• c. characteristic of a failing heart.
• d. the amount of oxygenated hemoglobin in
the blood in the left ventricle.
105
• Which of the following is the most likely
consequence of acute left ventricular failure?
•
•
•
•
a. Jugular vein distention
b. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly
c. Pulmonary edema
d. Pedal edema
106
• Most of the symptoms of acute left-sided heart
failure are
• a. relieved by morphine.
• b. cured by an antibiotic.
• c. respiratory in nature (e.g., dyspnea,
orthopnea).
• d. confined to the lower extremities, as in pedal
edema.
107
• Furosemide (Lasix), a potent diuretic, is
administered in acute ventricular failure to
•
•
•
•
a. strengthen myocardial contractile force.
b. increase plasma K+ levels.
c. excrete excess water and relieve the edema.
d. relieve pain.
108
• Ventricular systole refers to
•
•
•
•
a. ventricular depolarization.
b. the opening of the valves of the ventricles.
c. ventricular filling.
d. contraction of the ventricular myocardium.
109
• Venodilation
•
•
•
•
a. increases afterload.
b. decreases preload.
c. increases end-diastolic volume.
d. stretches the ventricular myocardium.
110
• Jugular vein distention is most associated with
•
•
•
•
a. right-sided heart failure.
b. aortic valve stenosis.
c. left wall infarct and left ventricular failure.
d. low volume shock right-sided heart failure.

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