1 • Which layer of the heart allows it to act as a pump? • • • • a. Epicardium b. Myocardium c. Pericardium d. Endocardium 2 • Which slinglike structure supports the heart? • • • • a.Pericardium b.Chordae tendineae c.Myocardium d.Endocardium 3 • What is the hardest working cardiac chamber and therefore has the thickest myocardium? • • • • a.Right atrium b.Right ventricle c.Left atrium d.Left ventricle 4 • The right ventricle pumps blood to the • • • • a. right atrium. b. pulmonary veins. c. pulmonary artery. d. aorta. 5 • Vessel(s) that carry(ies) blood from the pulmonary capillaries to the left atrium is (are) the • • • • a. Aorta b. Pulmonary artery c. Pulmonary veins d. Vena cava 6 • The aorta receives blood from the • • • • a. right ventricle. b. pulmonary veins. c. pulmonary artery. d. left ventricle. 7 • Blood flows from the right atrium through which atrioventricular valve to the right ventricle? • • • • a. Bicuspid b. Mitral c. Pulmonic d. Tricuspid 8 • Which of the following structures “sees” unoxygenated blood? • • • • a. Aorta b. Left ventricle c. Pulmonary artery d. Pulmonary veins 9 • Which of the following “sees” oxygenated blood? • • • • a. Vena cava b. Pulmonary veins c. Right atrium d. Pulmonic valve 10 • Chordae tendineae are not associated with which valve? • • • • a. Aortic b. Mitral c. Tricuspid d. Bicuspid 11 • With which of the following is “lubb-dupp” associated? • • • • a. Myocardial contraction b. Ventricular depolarization c. Closing of heart valves d. Diffusion of O2 from the lungs to the blood in the pulmonary capillaries 12 • Which of the following supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscle? • • • • a. Coronary arteries b. Pulmonary artery c. Pulmonary veins d. Cardiac veins 13 • Where does the cardiac action potential (cardiac impulse) normally originate? • • • • a. AV node b. Purkinje fibers c. Ectopic focus d. SA node 14 • The pacemaker of the heart is located in the upper wall of the • • • • a. right atrium. b. right ventricle. c. left atrium. d. left ventricle. 15 • Referring to the ECG, the P wave represents • • • • a. atrial contraction. b. ventricular relaxation. c. atrial depolarization. d. atrial repolarization. 16 • Referring to the ECG, the QRS complex represents ventricular • • • • a. contraction. b. repolarization. c. relaxation. d. depolarization. 17 • Which structure connects the cusps of the AV valves to the ventricles? • • • • a. Purkinje fibers b. AV node c. Bundle of His d. Chordae tendineae 18 • What are the conducting fibers that rapidly spread the electrical signal throughout the ventricles? • • • • a. Bundle of His b. Purkinje fibers c. SA node d. AV node 19 • Which of the following is least related to the mitral valve? • • • • a. Left heart b. Bicuspid c. Semilunar d. Chordae tendineae 20 • All of the following are electrical terms except • • • • a. sarcomere. b. depolarization. c. action potential. d. repolarization. 21 • Which of the following must precede ventricular contraction? • • • • a. Ventricular relaxation b. “Lubb-dupp” c. Ventricular depolarization d. Closing of the AV valves 22 • Which of the following semilunar valves “sees” oxygenated blood? • • • • a. Mitral b. Bicuspid c. Aortic d. Pulmonic 23 • The correct sequence is: blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery to the • • • • a. pulmonary veins. b. coronary arteries. c. pulmonary capillaries. d. vena cava. 24 • What event causes the pulmonic valve to open? • a. The P wave • b. An increase in the pressure within the right ventricle • c. “Lubb-dupp” • d. Contraction of the chordae tendineae 25 • Which layer of the heart has actin, myosin, and intercalated discs? • • • • a. Myocardium b. Endocardium c. Epicardium d. Pericardium 26 • The pericardium is a part of the • • • • a. myocardium. b. diaphragm. c. epicardium. d. endocardium. 27 • The mitral and the bicuspid valves • a. are semilunar valves. • b. are both located on the right side of the heart. • c. “see” only unoxygenated blood. • d. are the same valves. 28 • The pulmonic and aortic valves • a. are atrioventricular valves. • b. “see” only oxygenated blood. • c. are attached to the ventricular walls by chordae tendineae. • d. are semilunar valves. 29 • The correct sequence is: blood flows from the pulmonary capillaries to the pulmonary veins to the left atrium to the left ventricle to the • • • • a. vena cava. b. pulmonary artery. c. aorta. d. circle of Willis. 30 • The atrioventricular node (AV node) • a. is the pacemaker of the heart. • b. is located in the upper part of the right atrium. • c. has a rate that is normally faster than the SA node. • d. delays the electrical signal coming from the atria into the ventricles. 31 • The purpose of which structure is to delay the spread of the signal from the atrium to the ventricles? • • • • a. SA node b. Purkinje fibers c. Bundle of His d. AV node 32 • Which of the following is an electrical event? • • • • a. “Lubb-dupp” b. Actin and myosin interaction c. Murmur d. Depolarization 33 • Which of the following is a result of ventricular contraction? • a. The AV valves open. • b. The semilunar valves close. • c. Blood is pumped into the pulmonary artery and the aorta. • d. Blood flows back into the atria. 34 • Under what condition is blood most likely to flow “backward” (e.g., from the left ventricle back into the left atrium)? • • • • a. Pulmonary artery hypertension b. Left ventricular hypertrophy c. An insufficient mitral valve d. Pulmonary edema 35 • What are ventricles “doing” during atrial contraction? • • • • a. Pumping blood into the great vessels b. Closing their AV valves c. Relaxing d. Opening their semilunar valves 36 • The Purkinje fibers • a. open valves. • b. pull on the cusps of the valves. • c. conduct electrical signals throughout the ventricles. • d. close valves. 37 • Which cavity first receives unoxygenated blood from the vena cava? • • • • a. Right ventricle b. Left atrium c. Left ventricle d. Right atrium 38 • What is the name of the valve that prevents backflow of blood • • • • a. Mitral b. Pulmonic c. Semilunar d. Tricuspid 39 • What is the cause of the heart sounds “lubbdupp”? • a. Closing of the heart valves • b. Flow of blood through the coronary arteries • c. The electrical signal as it moves through the AV node • d. The firing of the autonomic nerves to the SA node 40 • Which of the following is not true of the heart? • a. The heart is located within the mediastinum. • b. The apex is located left of the sternal midline at the level of the fifth intercostal space. • c. The base of the heart is located at the level of the second rib. • d. The pericardium is composed of actin and myosin. 41 • Which of the following is least descriptive of the myocardium? • a. Cardiac muscle composed of actin and myosin arranged in sarcomeres • b. Thicker in the ventricles than the atria • c. Thicker in the left ventricle than the right ventricle • d. Thicker in the left atrium than the right ventricle 42 • Which of the following is a function of a valve? • a. Regulates the direction of the flow of blood through the heart • b. Regulates the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin • c. Regulates heart rate • d. Directs the movement of the cardiac impulse 43 • Which of the following is true of the structures of the electrical conduction system? • a. The AV valve is the pacemaker. • b. In normal sinus rhythm, the electrical signal arises within the SA node. • c. The His-Purkinje system spreads the electrical system from the right atrium to the left atrium. • d. The purpose of the AV node is to increase the speed at which the cardiac impulse moves from the atria to the ventricles. 44 • Which of the following is least true of the aortic valve? • a. It is also called the left semilunar valve. • b. It “sees” oxygenated blood. • c. Blood flows from the ventricle through this valve into the pulmonary artery. • d. An incompetent aortic valve allows blood to leak from the aorta back into the left ventricle. 45 • An accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial space • a. causes external compression of the heart. • b. depresses the SA node, thereby eliminating pacemaker activity. • c. causes valvular stenosis. • d. causes a left-to-right shunt. 46 • A hole in the interventricular septum causes • a. a right-to-left shunt. • b. extreme cyanosis. • c. blood to shunt from the left ventricle to the right ventricle. • d. blood to shunt from the left ventricle to the pulmonary artery. 47 • Which structure “sees” oxygenated blood? • • • • a. Tricuspid valve b. Pulmonary artery c. Pulmonary veins d. Right semilunar valve 48 • Which group is incorrect? • a. Semilunar valves: pulmonic, aortic • b. Atrioventricular valves: tricuspid, bicuspid, mitral • c. Structures that carry oxygenated blood: pulmonary veins, left ventricle, aorta • d. Structures that carry unoxygenated blood: right ventricle, venae cavae, pulmonary veins 49 • Which group is incorrect? • a. Semilunar valves: pulmonic, aortic • b. Structures that carry oxygenated blood: pulmonary veins, left ventricle, aorta • c. Layers of the heart: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium • d. Abnormal heart rates: tachycardia, bradycardia, normal sinus rhythm 50 • Which group is incorrect? • a. Atrioventricular valves: tricuspid, bicuspid, mitral • b. Layers of the heart: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium • c. Abnormal heart rates: tachycardia, bradycardia • d. Parts of the conduction system: SA node, AV node, bundle of His, Purkinje fibers, medulla oblongata 51 • Which of the following is true of the myocardium? • a. Contains thick and thin filaments • b. Contains actin and myosin • c. Is thicker in the left ventricle than in the right ventricle • d. All of the above 52 • During ventricular contraction, the • a. AV valves close in response to intraventricular pressure. • b. ECG is displaying the T wave. • c. Semilunar valves close, causing S1. • d. ECG is displaying the P-R interval. 53 • Which of the following is most related to “lubb” (of the lubb-dupp duo)? • a. Called S1 • b. Caused by the closure of the AV valves • c. Occurs in response to ventricular contraction • d. All of the above 54 • S2 is • a. caused by the closure of the AV valves at the beginning of ventricular contraction. • b. the second heart sound. • c. the heart sound caused by the sliding of actin and myosin. • d. All of the above are true. 55 • The purpose of the right heart is to pump blood • a. to the systemic circulation. • b. into the aorta. • c. to the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries. • d. to the lungs for oxygenation. 56 • Which of the following is not considered a “great” vessel? • • • • a. Left anterior descending artery b. Aorta c. Venae cavae d. Pulmonary artery 57 • Which of the following spaces does not contain the heart? • • • • a. Thoracic cavity b. Ventral cavity c. Dorsal cavity d. Mediastinum 58 • The semilunar valves • a. receive blood from the contracting ventricles. • b. are anchored by chordae tendineae. • c. “see” only oxygenated blood. • d. “see” only unoxygenated blood. 59 • Cells that spontaneously depolarize from resting membrane potential to threshold potential • • • • a. are called pacemaker cells. b. normally arise within the chordae tendineae. c. are restricted to the SA node. d. are stored within the pericardium. 60 • Cells that spontaneously depolarize from resting membrane potential to threshold potential • • • • a. are called pacemaker cells. b. normally arise within the chordae tendineae. c. are restricted to the SA node. d. are stored within the pericardium. 61 • Stenosis of which valve causes right ventricular hypertrophy? • • • • a. Mitral b. Tricuspid c. Right semilunar d. Left semilunar 62 • Which of the following is true about the left ventricular myocardium? • a. Pumps blood into the pulmonary artery • b. Is caused by the sliding of actin and myosin • c. Receives oxygenated blood from the precordium • d. Contains unoxygenated blood 63 • What is located at the second rib and fifth intercostal space? • • • • a. Base and apex of the heart b. Semilunar valves c. AV valves d. SA node and AV nodes 64 • The bicuspid and mitral valves • • • • a. are semilunar valves. b. “see” only unoxygenated blood. c. "see" only oxygenated blood d. are exit valves. 65 • What are the two phases of the ventricular action potential (cardiac impulse)? • • • • a. Systole and diastole b. Filling and ejecting c. Depolarization and repolarization d. P wave and T wave 66 • Which of the following electrical events is caused by the outflow (efflux) of K+? • • • • a. P-R interval b. Depolarization c. QRS complex d. Repolarization 67 • In normal sinus rhythm (NSR), the • a. cardiac impulse originates in the sinoatrial node. • b. action potential originates in the AV node. • c. AV node activates the SA node. • d. action potential is generated by the sympathetic nerve. 68 • During ventricular filling, the • • • • a. semilunar valves are open. b. AV valves are closed. c. QRS complex is “happening.” d. ventricles are relaxed. 69 • Heme contains • • • • a. albumin. b. plasma. c. iron. d. erythropoietin. 70 • Erythropoietin • a. is secreted by the kidneys. • b. stimulates the bone marrow to produce RBCs. • c. is released in response to hypoxemia. • d. All of the above are true. 71 • Which of the following is least associated with hemostasis? • • • • a. Coagulation b. Platelet plug c. Jaundice d. Blood vessel spasm 72 • An antithrombin agent • • • • a. causes jaundice. b. prevents blood coagulation. c. fights infection. d. stimulates the synthesis of hemoglobin. 73 • Which of the following is most associated with a blood clot? • • • • a. Agglutination b. Hemophilia c. Fibrin strands d. Rh factor 74 • What is the normal pH of blood? • • • • a. 7.00 to 7.45 b. 7.35 to 7.45 c. 6.92 to 7.25 d. 7.45 to 7.80 75 • What is the name of the condition caused by a diet that is deficient in iron? • • • • a. Leukopenia b. Anemia c. Jaundice d. Kernicterus 76 • Which type of blood is called the universal donor? • • • • a. O b. AB c. A d. B 77 • Which of the following is caused by agglutination of the RBCs? • • • • a. Hemolysis b. Coagulation c. Crenation d. Hemostasis 78 • What is the breakdown product of heme? • • • • a. Thrombin b. Plasmin c. Bilirubin d. Albumin 79 • Which of the following types of blood can a person with type O blood receive safely? • • • • a. A type b. B type c. AB type d. O type 80 • Which of the following is related to the white blood cell? • • • • a. Phagocytosis b. Oxygen transport c. Hemoglobin d. Bilirubin 81 • Which type of blood is called the universal recipient? • • • • a. Type O b. Type AB c. Type A d. Type B 82 • Which of the following is characteristic of the platelet? • • • • a. Granulocyte b. Bilirubin c. O2 transport d. Stickiness 83 • To which component of the red blood cell does oxygen loosely bind? • • • • a. Cell membrane b. Globin portion of the hemoglobin c. Iron molecule within heme d. Bilirubin component of the heme 84 • At the end of 120 days, the red blood cell • a. is removed from the circulation and broken down. • b. becomes known as a “poly.” • c. becomes known as a reticulocyte. • d. is converted to fibrin. 85 • Plasma • a. gives blood its red color. • b. is the primary oxygen-carrying part of the blood. • c. is considered intracellular fluid. • d. is the fluid part of the blood. 86 • Which of the following conditions is most likely to cause erythroblastosis? • • • • a. The baby is Rh– and the mother is Rh–. b. The baby is Rh+ and the mother is Rh+. c. The baby is Rh+ and the mother is Rh–. d. The baby is Rh+ and the mother is type A+. 87 • Which of the following conditions is caused by an overdose of heparin or warfarin sodium (Coumadin)? • • • • a. Bleeding b. Infection c. Jaundice d. Thrombosis 88 • Which of the following does the prothrombin time measure? • • • • a. The amount of oxygen in the blood b. Clotting activity of the blood c. Bone marrow activity d. The degree or intensity of jaundice 89 • Donor blood is typed and cross-matched with the recipient’s blood to prevent which condition? • • • • a. Infection b. Myelosuppression c. Agglutination d. Petechiae formation 90 • Both the red blood cell and white blood cell • a. are classified as granulocytes or agranulocytes. • b. contain iron that acts as a binding site for oxygen. • c. contain hemoglobin. • d. are produced in the bone marrow. 91 • Which of the following is least descriptive of blood? • a. The average man has 4 to 6 L of blood. • b. The normal pH of blood is 7.35 to 7.45. • c. Oxygenated blood is redder than unoxygenated blood. • d. Water is three to five times more viscous than blood. 92 • Which anticoagulant is secreted by mast cells (basophils)? • • • • a. Plasmin b. EPO c. Vitamin K d. Heparin 93 • Which of the following is true of iron? • • • • a. Is in the heme part of hemoglobin b. Is necessary for erythropoiesis c. Binds reversibly to oxygen d. All of the above 94 • A person who is taking warfarin (Coumadin) is advised to limit the intake of spinach and broccoli because they • a. are irritating to the lining of the digestive tract and can cause bleeding. • b. interfere with the absorption of vitamin K by the digestive tract. • c. contain lots of vitamin K, the antidote to Coumadin therapy. • d. contain excess extrinsic factor. 95 • Systole and diastole describe the function of the • • • • a. pericardium. b. SA node. c. myocardium. d. mediastinum. 96 • During atrial systole, the • • • • a. AV valves are closed. b. ventricles are relaxed. c. ventricles are in systole. d. semilunar valves are open. 97 • What happens during ventricular diastole? • • • • a. The ventricles are filling with blood. b. All semilunar valves are open. c. Both AV valves are closed. d. Blood is pumped to the lungs and systemic circulation. 98 • What term refers to the amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in one beat? • • • • a. Cardiac output b. Blood volume c. Hematocrit d. Stroke volume 99 • Which term refers to the amount of blood pumped by the heart in 1 minute? • • • • a. Stroke volume b. Cardiac output c. Starling’s law of the heart d. Inotropic effect 100 • Decreased blood flow through the coronary arteries is most likely to cause • • • • a. valve damage. b. pulmonary edema. c. angina pectoris. d. bradycardia. 101 • Which term refers to a heart rate less than 60 beats/min? • • • • a. Bradycardia b. Heart block c. Fight-or-flight response d. Tachycardia 102 • What is the term for the sequence of events that occur during one heartbeat? • • • • a. Stroke volume b. Cardiac output c. Cardiac cycle d. Systole 103 • Cardiac output is determined by heart rate and • • • • a. systemic vascular resistance. b. stroke volume. c. hematocrit. d. hemoglobin concentration. 104 • An ejection fraction of 30% is • a. normal. • b. characteristic of a healthy person who is engaged in aerobic exercise. • c. characteristic of a failing heart. • d. the amount of oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood in the left ventricle. 105 • Which of the following is the most likely consequence of acute left ventricular failure? • • • • a. Jugular vein distention b. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly c. Pulmonary edema d. Pedal edema 106 • Most of the symptoms of acute left-sided heart failure are • a. relieved by morphine. • b. cured by an antibiotic. • c. respiratory in nature (e.g., dyspnea, orthopnea). • d. confined to the lower extremities, as in pedal edema. 107 • Furosemide (Lasix), a potent diuretic, is administered in acute ventricular failure to • • • • a. strengthen myocardial contractile force. b. increase plasma K+ levels. c. excrete excess water and relieve the edema. d. relieve pain. 108 • Ventricular systole refers to • • • • a. ventricular depolarization. b. the opening of the valves of the ventricles. c. ventricular filling. d. contraction of the ventricular myocardium. 109 • Venodilation • • • • a. increases afterload. b. decreases preload. c. increases end-diastolic volume. d. stretches the ventricular myocardium. 110 • Jugular vein distention is most associated with • • • • a. right-sided heart failure. b. aortic valve stenosis. c. left wall infarct and left ventricular failure. d. low volume shock right-sided heart failure.