An Energy System Primer

Report
An Energy Systems Primer
Midwest Performance Enhancement
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Thank You
Thanks to Perform Better and EliteFTS
Thanks to the other speakers
Thanks to the IFAST Staff
Thanks to you
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Objectives
• Understand the interaction of energy systems
• Identify the difference between athletes’
needs in regard to energy production
• Understand implications for training
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Essential Resources
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Adaptation in Sports Training by Viru
Ultimate MMA Conditioning by Jamieson
Exercise Metabolism by Hargreaves/Spriet
Block Periodization by Issurin
Time-motion research
Repeated-sprint ability research
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How do you train a guy for a 10 minute round in
MMA?
“You have to do 10 minutes of shit.”
-Joel Jamieson, MMA Conditioning Expert
Author, Ultimate MMA Conditioning
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Energy Systems
• ATP-CP/Phosphagen (alactic)
– Immediate energy
• Glycolytic (lactic)
– Intermediate energy
• Oxidative (aerobic)
– Long term energy
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Contribution by sport
1974
ATP/CP
Glycolytic
Oxidative
Basketball
80
15
5
Hockey
80
20
0
Soccer
60
20
20
50 Freestyle
95
5
0
1998
ATP/CP
Glycolytic
Oxidative
Basketball
60
20
20
Hockey
50
20
30
Soccer
50
20
30
50 Freestyle
40
55
5
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Energy Systems
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Energy Systems
• ATP-CP
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ATP-CP
• No good evidence that training will increase ATP or CP
stores in muscles
• 6 second all-out sprint can reduce CP stores up to 55%
• Rate of CP driven ATP production decreases when CP is
reduced
• Greater reduction of CP in fast-twitch fibers
• High power activities may create a “CP deficit” that will
affect repeat performance even before CP is exhausted
• Without the contribution of ATP from other sources,
CP stores could be exhausted in ~10 seconds
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Energy Systems
• Glycolysis
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Glycolysis
• Increases in ADP/AMP activate glycolytic enzymes
to break down glycogen
• At higher intensities, Glycolytic activity increases
resulting in high levels of lactate and H+
• Increased concentration of strong ions (H+, Na+,
Cl-, and Pi) at high intensities interfere with
muscle contraction
• In a 30 second sprint, glycolysis and CP provide
equal amounts of energy
• Repeated, high-intensity efforts rely less on
glycolytic energy production
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Glycolysis and ATP-CP
6 second sprints on 30 seconds rest
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Gylcolysis and ATP-CP
3 – 30 second sprints with 4 minute rest
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Energy Systems
• Beta oxidation/Kreb’s Cycle
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Oxidative Metabolism
• Huge potential for improvement (~240%)
• The faster it turns on, the less anaerobic
energy is required
• May contribute as much as 13% of energy
production in a 10 second sprint and 27% in a
20 second sprint
• With repeated, high intensity efforts, oxidative
metabolism is primarily responsible for ATP
regeneration
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Influence of Duration
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Oxidative Metabolism
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Energy System Review
• All energy systems are working all the time
• ATP-CP and glycolysis contribute equally in the
early stages of maximal efforts
• Oxidative metabolism contributes earlier and
to a greater degree than we once thought
• With repeated, high intensity efforts, end
products of glycolysis inhibit ATP production
from glycolytic metabolism and oxidative
takes a dominant role.
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Intermittant Sprint Exercise
• Intermittent Sprint Exercise
– Short sprint/high intensity activity ≤ 10 sec
– Long duration of rest period (60s to 5 minutes)
– Near full recovery
– Little to no decrement in performance
– Singular events
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Intermittant Sprint Exercise
• Limiting Factors
– Slow rate of CP breakdown
– Slow rate of anaerobic glycolysis
– Alactic capacity/Glycolytic capacity depending on
duration of the sprint
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Intermittent Sprint Exercise
• Strategies
– Alactic power development
– Glycolytic power development
– Alactic/Glycolytic capacity development
depending on duration of sprint
– Maximum effort strength/power training
– Aerobic development via tempo training (Charlie
Francis style)
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Repeated-Sprint Exercise
• Repeated-Sprint Exercise (AKA, RSA)
– Short sprint/high intensity activity ≤ 10 sec
– Shorter rest period (≤ 60 sec)
– Inability to achieve full recovery
– Almost always a performance decrement
– Typical of most team/field sports
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Intermittant vs. Repeated
4 second sprints on either 2 minute or 30 second rest periods
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Time Motion Study - Soccer
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Time Motion Study - Rugby
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Time Motion Study - Hurling
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Repeated-Sprint Exercise
• Limiting Factors
– First sprint performance
– Limited rest period/recovery time
– Power recovery is directly correlated to CP
resynthesis
– Accumulation of H+ and Pi
– Decline of anaerobic glycolysis
– Rate and capacity of oxidative metabolism
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Repeated-Sprint Exercise
• Strategies
– Alactic power development
– Alactic capacity depending on duration of sprints
– Aerobic power and capacity development
– Endurance-based strength training
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Longer All-out/Mixed/Interval Exercise
• Longer All-out/Mixed/Interval Exercise
– Longer periods of activity mixed with variable
periods of higher intensity
– Variable active/pure rest periods
– Performance depends on level of effort, duration
of activity, and duration of rest
– Energy production from any system is not
necessarily maximal
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Longer All-out/Mixed/Interval Exercise
• Limiting Factors
• Overreliance on glycolytic metabolism for
longer activity periods
• Underdevelopment of oxidative metabolism
• Low anaerobic threshold
• Low power output below anaerobic threshold
• Inability to recover from brief periods of high
power output
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Longer All-out/Mixed/Interval Exercise
• Strategies
• Alactic power/capacity for explosive bursts
• Glycolytic power/capacity development for
shorter activity periods
• Aerobic power development*
• Anaerobic threshold training
• Optimal levels vs. maximal
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Time-Motion Study - Wrestling
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Olympic Freestyle/Greco-Roman Wrestling
3 – 2 minute rounds
Ave. 16 bursts of high-intensity activity
~3 seconds per burst
~23 seconds of recovery
Prolonged isometric activity/higher levels of
lactate (glycolytic)
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Anaerobic Threshold
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Training Notes
• Most field/team sports are Alactic-Aerobic in
nature (AKA, repeated-sprint exercise)
• Repetitive sprinting requires adequate aerobic
power and capacity for medium intensity work
AND restoration of short-term energy substrates
(creatine phosphate)
• Insufficient aerobic development causes
premature fatigue due to reliance on glycolytic
energy production
• Constant use of high intensity methods interferes
with recovery due to SNS stimulation and does
not address medium intensity adaptations.
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Interval vs. Continuous
• Constant use of high-intensity methods interferes with
recovery between sessions
• Interval training does not address medium intensity
needs of many team sports
• Results from high-intensity interval training peak
quickly
• Continuous aerobic training increases aerobic enzymes
and reduces anaerobic enzymes.
• Anaerobic interval training increases both aerobic and
anaerobic enzymes
• Increasing oxidative capacity results in less lactate
production despite the same rate of glycogenolysis
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Interval vs. Continuous
• Greater mitochondrial biogenesis occurred with
lower power training than high-power interval
training
• Most effective training to increase mitochondria
resulted with continuous training near anaerobic
threshold
• Interval training improves oxidation rate between
bouts of activity
• FYI… intermittent isometric training also
increases mitochondrial enzymes
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Tabata
Anaerobic capacity increased 23% in 4 weeks, 28% by week 6
VO2 increased significantly to week 3 and then leveled out
Endurance training increased maximal oxygen uptake
steadily throughout the study
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The Methods
• Cardiac output development
– Major determinant of whole body aerobic power
• Alactic power and Capacity Development
• Glycolytic Power and Capacity Development
• Aerobic Power and Capacity Development
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Cardiac Output Development
• Central adaptation
• COD Training results in eccentric left ventrical
hypertrophy
• Increases oxygen delivery to working muscles
• Accelerates recovery between exercise bouts
within a training session may contribute to
faster recovery between sessions (sympathetic
to parasympathetic)
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Cardiac Output Development
• Not all athletes need it or need much of it
• Some need a lot
• Athletes with lower resting heart rates and/or
those who recover quickly from intensive exercise
may not need specific COD training
• Great initial sprint performance may need more
• Heart rates should fall into the 120-150 bpm
range to maximize left ventricular refill
• Durations lasting 20-60 minutes 1-2x/week as
needed
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Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
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Cardiac Output Development
• Means
– Continuous activity (jog, bike, aerobic equipment,
etc.)
– Body weight circuits
– Jump rope
– Medicine ball throws
– Slide board
– Light strength work
– Combinations
– Breathing exercises
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Alactic Energy System Development
• Increases the rate at which alactic system can
turn on (alactic power)
• Increases the duration that the alactic system
can produce energy (alactic capacity)
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Alactic Power Development
• Alactic power intervals (rate)
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1-3 sec ATP/6-10 seconds ATP+CP
Passive/low intensity recovery (walking)
Work:Rest Ratio 1:20 (max power each rep)
2-5 sets x 15-30 total reps
Frequency every 3rd day
Development time 4-6 weeks
Maintenance 1-2x/week
Sprints, prowler push, sled, jumps, explosive pushups, agility training
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Alactic Capacity Development
• Alactic Capacity Intervals
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8-15 seconds
Passive/low intensity recovery (walking)
Work:Rest Ratio 1:8 (decreasing rest for specificity)
3-5 sets x 12-24 total reps
Up to 1-3 times per week
Development time 4-6 weeks
Maintenance at 1-2x/week
Sprints, prowler push, sled, jumps, jump squats,
explosive push-ups, agility training
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Alactic Energy System Development
• Alactic Capacity Intervals
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Glycolytic Energy System Development
• Increase the rate of glycolytic energy production
• Increase the capacity of glycolytic energy
production
• Improve buffering of H+ and strong ions
• Increases cardiac strength/concentric
hypertrophy because of near maximal heart rates
• Glycolytic system can be trained quickly with
lower volumes
• Too much is destructive to aerobic performance
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Glycolytic Power Development
• Glycolytic power intervals
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20-40 seconds maximal intensity
Light activity/Active rest between sets
4’ up to 10’ rest periods (Larger peak lactate)
2-4 sets x 1-3 reps/set
Frequency 2x/week
Development time 4-6 weeks
Maintenance 1-2x/week
Sprints, shuttles, sport specific drills (muscle specific)
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Glycolytic Capacity Development
• Glycolytic Capacity Intervals
– 30 sec-2 minutes at best effort
– 1-2 minutes active rest between reps
(incomplete); 4-6 minutes active rest between
sets
– 2-4 sets x 3 reps
– Frequency 2x/week
– Development time 4-6 weeks
– Maintenance 1-2x/week
– Runs and sport specific drills (muscle specific)
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Aerobic Power Development
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Aerobic power
1-5 min intervals
Work:Rest Ratio 1:1 to 1:0.5
3-6 reps
1-2x/week
Slightly above anaerobic threshold
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Aerobic Power Development
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Threshold Training
10-20 minutes +/- anaerobic threshold
5-10’ rest
1-5 reps (fewer reps at longer durations)
1-3x/week
Runs, circuits, sport specific drills
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Aerobic Power Development
• Gotta do it fast?
• 6-12 x 2’/1’ rest
– 30sec/90sec rest x 8
– 6sec/1’ rest x 15
• 2-3x/week
• Also increases buffering capacity
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Aerobic Capacity Development
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Aerobic Capacity
8-20 min at best steady state
1-3 reps
4-10 min passive rest
1-2x/week
Runs, drills, circuits, short-sided games
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Compatibility
• Lower level athletes
– Inability to generate intensity
– Large window of adaptation
– Concurrent training
• Higher level athletes
– Concentration of loading
– Conflicting stimuli from differing physiological
systems
– Block periodization
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Compatibility
• Aerobic Development
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Heart chamber size
Muscle capillarization
Mitochondrial biogenesis
Myoglobin increase
Aerobic enzymes
• Glycolytic Development
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Heart muscle thickness
Reduced capillarization
Decreased mitochondria
Glycolytic enzymes
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Compatibility
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Questions
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