Nationalism and Industrialization PPT

Report
NATIONALISM AND
INDUSTRIALIZATION
EARLY 1800S
Essential Question
 What factors helped
to lead to American
Nationalism right
around the turn of
the 1800’s? Do
Americans still have
the same
nationalistic pride
today as they did
back then?
I CAN:
1. Analyze and Interpret the concept
Nationalism within America during the early
1800’s
2. Explain how the Industrial Revolution lead to
major advancements in technology,
innovation, and inventions within America
Society
3. Examine the concept of slavery within the
Southern states during the early to mid 1800’s
NATIONALISM
 After the War of 1812 (the second war with Britain),
Americans began to see themselves as part of the
larger country. Loyalty to the United States became
more important than loyalty to one’s home state or
region.
James Monroe
 James Monroe became
President in 1817.
 Congress proposed 3
new solutions:
1. National Bank
2. Protective Tariffs
3. Internal
Improvements
New National Bank
 Proposed in 1816
by John C.
Calhoun
 Empowered bank
to control state
banks and issue
notes that would
serve as a
national currency
Protective Tariffs
 The Embargo of 1807
and the War of 1812 had
kept Americans from
buying British goods.
Now they were available
very cheaply. This hurt
American businesses.
 Congress passed the
Tariff of 1816, which
changed from a revenue
to a protective tariff
Judicial Nationalism
 The need for better roads
was obvious during the
War of 1812.
 McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819) – the “necessary
and proper” clause of the
Constitution allowed the
government to use its
powers in any way not
specifically prohibited by
the Constitution.
Judicial Cont.
 Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – a state could regulate
trade within its own borders, but the federal
government could control interstate commerce.
Nationalist Diplomacy
 Spain owned Florida until
1819. Runaway slaves
would hide there and
Seminoles would clash
with white settlers on the
frontier.
 In 1818, Andrew Jackson
led troops into Florida to
seize settlements.
Adams-Onis Treaty
 Secretary John Quincy Adams blamed Spain
for not being able to control their colony and
would not punish Jackson for the invasion.
 Spain was having trouble with their other
Latin American colonies and eventually
ceded all of Florida to the U.S in the AdamsOnis Treaty of 1819
Monroe Doctrine
 Neither the U.S. nor Britain
wanted Spain to have
colonies in the western
hemisphere.
 In 1823, Pres. James
Monroe issued the Monroe
Doctrine – the American
continents should no longer
be considered open for
colonization.
 Europe should respect
sovereignty of Latin
America
Monroe Doctrine Cartoon
A Growing Nation
INDUSTRIALIZATION,
TRANSPORTATION,
AND INVENTIONS
Erie Canal
 New inventions in the early 1800s drastically
improved transportation, communications and
industry.
 1825 – the Erie Canal connected New York to
Buffalo. It cut the travel time from 20 days to 6 days.
National Road and Turnpike
 By 1838, the National
Road reached inland
from Cumberland,
Maryland to Vandalia,
Illinois.
 States and private
companies also laid
hundreds of miles of toll
roads, called turnpikes.
National Road and Turnpike
Steamboat
 Robert Fulton invented a steamboat that allowed
cargo to travel upstream. By 1850, 700 steamboats
traveled waterways in the U.S.
Iron Horse
 Peter Cooper built a locomotive that would travel 10
mph, based on engines developed in Britain.
 The railroad helped settle the West more than any
other single factor.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the
middle 1700s. It dramatically changed society in
several ways:
 Manufacturing shifted from hand tools to complex
machines
 Individual artisans switched to large work forces
 Factories replaced home-based workshops
 Goods were sold nationwide instead of just locally
Capitalism
 The United States
industrialized quickly
because of our free
enterprise system and
private property rights.
 Low tax rates and little
government interference
opened the way for
industry to grow and
develop
Northeastern Industry
 Swift-flowing
streams in the
Northeast made
it easy to build
factories with
water power
(Industrlization
begins in
Northeast)
Slater and Lowell
 Samuel Slater migrated
from England and built a
water frame for spinning
cotton into thread.
 In 1814, Francis Lowell
opened mills in
Massachusetts to
produce cloth.
Eli Whitney
 Eli Whitney used a
system of
interchangeable parts for
gun-making.
 This revolutionized the
production of many
items and made it
possible for people to buy
standardized products
cheaply.
Canning Goods
 Thomas Kensett
began sealing
foods in airtight
containers to
allow storing and
transportation
without spoiling.
Communications
 In 1832, Samuel F. B.
Morse developed a system
called Morse code for the
telegraph. By 1860, more
than 50,000 miles of
telegraph wire connected
the country.
 1848, a group of
newspapers in New York
created the Associated
Press to collect and share
news stories.
Immigration during Industrialization
 Industrialization
attracted people from all
over the world who
wanted a chance to make
money in the U.S.
 Between 1815 and 1860,
over 5 million foreigners
came to America
 1845 – over 44,000 came
from Ireland.
Immigration Cont.
 Nativism – a preference for
native-born people and a
desire to limit immigration
 1854 – group formed called
the American Party.
Became known as the
Know Nothings because
their members were
supposed to answer “I
know nothing” when asked
about some of their
suspicious activities.
Women in the Workforce and Literacy
 Many women found jobs
in factories or as
domestic servants. Some
worked in the publishing
industry, which was
growing.
 By 1840, the literacy rate
was at 75% of the total
population (90% of the
white population) could
read.
Workers Organize
 Workers began to form labor
unions in hopes of
improving conditions. Many
workers were paid low
wages, especially women
and children. A typical work
day was 12 hours,
sometimes under dangerous
conditions.
 Early labor unions had little
real power.
 1842- Commonwealth vs.
Hunt- Union strikes, work
stoppages, became legal.
President and Labor
 1840 – Pres.
Martin Van
Buren supported
labor’s efforts by
reducing the
workday for
federal
employees to 10
hours/day.
Agriculture and the Economy
 In spite of urban
growth and
industrialization,
farming was still the
leading economic
activity throughout the
country.
 Major cash crops
included: tobacco, rice
paddies, sugar cane,
and cotton
FARMING SINCE 1850
Eli and the Cotton Gin
 1793 – Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin.
This machine allowed
cotton seeds to be picked
quickly as compared to
picking by hand.
 This invention coincided
with the expansion of the
British textile industry.
 By 1801, annual
production of cotton had
soared to 100,000 bales
and by 1860 to 4 million.
Cotton in the South
 Southern cotton accounted for nearly 2/3 of the total
export trade from the U.S. “Cotton was king.”
Slave holders in the South
 Less than half of 1% of white
Southern farmers in 1850
were considered “wealthy
planters”.
 Most were yeoman farmers,
who were smaller and owned
4 or less slaves
 About 30% were slaveholders
 Fewer than 8,000 had 50 or
more slaves
 Only 11 had 500 or more
slaves
Slavery Increasing
 The cotton gin, increased
demand for cotton in Europe
and the natural reproduction
of currently held slaves kept
slavery alive. The slave trade
had ended in 1808.
 The slave system changed
with the increased demand in
cotton.
 Slaves increased from 1.5
million in 1820 to 3.2 million
in 1850 (37 % population of
the South)
Prices of Slaves in the South
System of Slavery
 In the 1700s and early 1800s, slaves worked under a
task system. Workers were given a set of jobs to be
completed. Once the job was done, slaves were free
to tend to their own families, or whatever else they
wanted to do for the remainder of the day.
 As the demand for cotton increased, slaveholders
implemented the gang system, where an overseer
would push the slaves to work all day long to keep
production up.
Coping with Enslavement
 Slave codes
prevented slaves
from owning
property, leaving
the plantation
without
permission,
testifying in court,
or learning to read
or write.
Nat Turner
 Some slaves led revolts
against the harsh
treatment they received.
One of the most famous
cases was that of Nat
Turner. He believed that
God had chosen him to
lead a raid, going from
house to house, killing
more than 50 white men,
women and children.
Free African Americans
 By 1850, over 225,000 free
African Americans lived in
the South. Some were
successful enough to
become slaveholders
themselves.
 197, 700 free African
Americans lived in the
North, where slavery was
now illegal. They often
faced racism and
hardships, too.

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