NATIONALISM AND INDUSTRIALIZATION EARLY 1800S Essential Question What factors helped to lead to American Nationalism right around the turn of the 1800’s? Do Americans still have the same nationalistic pride today as they did back then? I CAN: 1. Analyze and Interpret the concept Nationalism within America during the early 1800’s 2. Explain how the Industrial Revolution lead to major advancements in technology, innovation, and inventions within America Society 3. Examine the concept of slavery within the Southern states during the early to mid 1800’s NATIONALISM After the War of 1812 (the second war with Britain), Americans began to see themselves as part of the larger country. Loyalty to the United States became more important than loyalty to one’s home state or region. James Monroe James Monroe became President in 1817. Congress proposed 3 new solutions: 1. National Bank 2. Protective Tariffs 3. Internal Improvements New National Bank Proposed in 1816 by John C. Calhoun Empowered bank to control state banks and issue notes that would serve as a national currency Protective Tariffs The Embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 had kept Americans from buying British goods. Now they were available very cheaply. This hurt American businesses. Congress passed the Tariff of 1816, which changed from a revenue to a protective tariff Judicial Nationalism The need for better roads was obvious during the War of 1812. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – the “necessary and proper” clause of the Constitution allowed the government to use its powers in any way not specifically prohibited by the Constitution. Judicial Cont. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – a state could regulate trade within its own borders, but the federal government could control interstate commerce. Nationalist Diplomacy Spain owned Florida until 1819. Runaway slaves would hide there and Seminoles would clash with white settlers on the frontier. In 1818, Andrew Jackson led troops into Florida to seize settlements. Adams-Onis Treaty Secretary John Quincy Adams blamed Spain for not being able to control their colony and would not punish Jackson for the invasion. Spain was having trouble with their other Latin American colonies and eventually ceded all of Florida to the U.S in the AdamsOnis Treaty of 1819 Monroe Doctrine Neither the U.S. nor Britain wanted Spain to have colonies in the western hemisphere. In 1823, Pres. James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine – the American continents should no longer be considered open for colonization. Europe should respect sovereignty of Latin America Monroe Doctrine Cartoon A Growing Nation INDUSTRIALIZATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND INVENTIONS Erie Canal New inventions in the early 1800s drastically improved transportation, communications and industry. 1825 – the Erie Canal connected New York to Buffalo. It cut the travel time from 20 days to 6 days. National Road and Turnpike By 1838, the National Road reached inland from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois. States and private companies also laid hundreds of miles of toll roads, called turnpikes. National Road and Turnpike Steamboat Robert Fulton invented a steamboat that allowed cargo to travel upstream. By 1850, 700 steamboats traveled waterways in the U.S. Iron Horse Peter Cooper built a locomotive that would travel 10 mph, based on engines developed in Britain. The railroad helped settle the West more than any other single factor. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the middle 1700s. It dramatically changed society in several ways: Manufacturing shifted from hand tools to complex machines Individual artisans switched to large work forces Factories replaced home-based workshops Goods were sold nationwide instead of just locally Capitalism The United States industrialized quickly because of our free enterprise system and private property rights. Low tax rates and little government interference opened the way for industry to grow and develop Northeastern Industry Swift-flowing streams in the Northeast made it easy to build factories with water power (Industrlization begins in Northeast) Slater and Lowell Samuel Slater migrated from England and built a water frame for spinning cotton into thread. In 1814, Francis Lowell opened mills in Massachusetts to produce cloth. Eli Whitney Eli Whitney used a system of interchangeable parts for gun-making. This revolutionized the production of many items and made it possible for people to buy standardized products cheaply. Canning Goods Thomas Kensett began sealing foods in airtight containers to allow storing and transportation without spoiling. Communications In 1832, Samuel F. B. Morse developed a system called Morse code for the telegraph. By 1860, more than 50,000 miles of telegraph wire connected the country. 1848, a group of newspapers in New York created the Associated Press to collect and share news stories. Immigration during Industrialization Industrialization attracted people from all over the world who wanted a chance to make money in the U.S. Between 1815 and 1860, over 5 million foreigners came to America 1845 – over 44,000 came from Ireland. Immigration Cont. Nativism – a preference for native-born people and a desire to limit immigration 1854 – group formed called the American Party. Became known as the Know Nothings because their members were supposed to answer “I know nothing” when asked about some of their suspicious activities. Women in the Workforce and Literacy Many women found jobs in factories or as domestic servants. Some worked in the publishing industry, which was growing. By 1840, the literacy rate was at 75% of the total population (90% of the white population) could read. Workers Organize Workers began to form labor unions in hopes of improving conditions. Many workers were paid low wages, especially women and children. A typical work day was 12 hours, sometimes under dangerous conditions. Early labor unions had little real power. 1842- Commonwealth vs. Hunt- Union strikes, work stoppages, became legal. President and Labor 1840 – Pres. Martin Van Buren supported labor’s efforts by reducing the workday for federal employees to 10 hours/day. Agriculture and the Economy In spite of urban growth and industrialization, farming was still the leading economic activity throughout the country. Major cash crops included: tobacco, rice paddies, sugar cane, and cotton FARMING SINCE 1850 Eli and the Cotton Gin 1793 – Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. This machine allowed cotton seeds to be picked quickly as compared to picking by hand. This invention coincided with the expansion of the British textile industry. By 1801, annual production of cotton had soared to 100,000 bales and by 1860 to 4 million. Cotton in the South Southern cotton accounted for nearly 2/3 of the total export trade from the U.S. “Cotton was king.” Slave holders in the South Less than half of 1% of white Southern farmers in 1850 were considered “wealthy planters”. Most were yeoman farmers, who were smaller and owned 4 or less slaves About 30% were slaveholders Fewer than 8,000 had 50 or more slaves Only 11 had 500 or more slaves Slavery Increasing The cotton gin, increased demand for cotton in Europe and the natural reproduction of currently held slaves kept slavery alive. The slave trade had ended in 1808. The slave system changed with the increased demand in cotton. Slaves increased from 1.5 million in 1820 to 3.2 million in 1850 (37 % population of the South) Prices of Slaves in the South System of Slavery In the 1700s and early 1800s, slaves worked under a task system. Workers were given a set of jobs to be completed. Once the job was done, slaves were free to tend to their own families, or whatever else they wanted to do for the remainder of the day. As the demand for cotton increased, slaveholders implemented the gang system, where an overseer would push the slaves to work all day long to keep production up. Coping with Enslavement Slave codes prevented slaves from owning property, leaving the plantation without permission, testifying in court, or learning to read or write. Nat Turner Some slaves led revolts against the harsh treatment they received. One of the most famous cases was that of Nat Turner. He believed that God had chosen him to lead a raid, going from house to house, killing more than 50 white men, women and children. Free African Americans By 1850, over 225,000 free African Americans lived in the South. Some were successful enough to become slaveholders themselves. 197, 700 free African Americans lived in the North, where slavery was now illegal. They often faced racism and hardships, too.