Unit 12: Industrial Revolution

Report
SSWH15 The student will be able to describe
the impact of industrialization, the rise of
nationalism, and the major characteristics of
worldwide imperialism.
a. Analyze the process and impact of
industrialization in England, Germany, and
Japan, movements for political reform, the
writings of Adam Smith and Karl Marx, and
urbanization and its effect on women.


Era of rapid industrial development
Practical application of knowledge gained from
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Had a deeper understanding of the natural world
 Scientific advances were then applied in a practical
way
 Led to creation of new machines and businesses


Major developments in technology aimed at
producing and moving goods

Designed to meet needs of fast-growing population

Agricultural Revolution had already taken place
there
Small farms combined into more efficient, larger holdings
that were fenced off (enclosed).
 Tenant farmers moved to cities
 Farmers no longer needed permission from others to try
new methods.

 Seed drill – planted seeds in straight rows
 Horse-drawn hoe broke up soil before planting
 Crop rotation – produced more crops, less land



Increased production/less labor
Iron plows replaced wooden
More food at lower prices (people have money to buy
manufactured goods)

Had factors of production – land, labor, capital




Government policies toward trade


Rich supply of natural resources, especially coal and
iron ore, rivers for power and shipping routes (land)
Plenty of tools, machinery, equipment and inventory
for production (capital), also money to invest
(capital)
Large supply of labor
Free trade attitudes, encouraged development
Not destroyed in Napoleonic Wars
(island/isolated)
TEXTILES
Originally a cottage industry
-
Families made cloth in their homes (spinning and
weaving)
Mechanization
Loom for weaving cloth (1733 – John Kay/Flying shuttle)
Spinning Jenny (1760s – James Hargreaves) – 8 times the
thread of a spinning wheel.
- Water power to drive the machines (Richard Arkwright)
in mill (1780s)
- Water powered loom (1785 – Edmund Cartwright)
-
- One person could weave as much cloth as 200 hand loom
operators.
- With each new idea, other ideas followed.



Prices of cotton cloth fell
Demand for cotton went up
Led to invention of the cotton gin (Eli Whitney)
and more slave labor in the United States.


1712 – first steam engine (Thomas Newcomen)
1769 – improved steam engine (James Watt)


Factory to manufacture steam engines
Steam became the driving force of industrialization,
no longer need to have water power to drive
machines


Henry Bessemer (British) and William Kelly
(American) each came up with way to make
steel cheaply and efficiently – burning off the
impurities of iron.
Steel – much stronger than iron

Developed in 1870’s
Brits worked with it in 1820’s/1830’s, developed a
dynamo(electric generator)
 Late 1800’s found ways to use as a power source


Thomas Edison 1879




Improved light bulb
Transmission systems developed in 1882, put
into use in NYC and London.
Hydroelectric power
Electric motors replaced steam power

With increased demand for cotton, coal and
iron - TRANSPORTATION became priority.
1804 first steam-powered locomotive
 1814 steam locomotive that ran on rails
 By mid 1800s over 5,000 miles of track in Britain.


Railroads


Made shipping less expensive
Expanded market for goods

Steamboats


Robert Fulton’s Clermont 1808 (American)
1830s first steamboat crossed the Atlantic
 About half the time (17 days)
 Regular service across the Atlantic began

Ships built of iron and steel moved goods all over
the world quickly and cheaply.

Automobiles – late 1800’s
Internal combustion engines (burned fuel in closed
cylinder)
 1893 first gas-powered auto in U.S.


Airplanes – early 1900’s

Orville and Wilbur Wright 1903

Samuel Morse – sent electric currents through a
wire, communicated with clicking sounds to
represent letters. (telegraph)

Stretched across continents and oceans (1844)


Alexander Graham Bell – telephone 1876
Guglielmo Marconi – wireless messages 1895






Did not have a central government to aid in
industrial growth.
Didn’t industrialize until the 1870’s (about 100
years after Britain)
Within a few decades – strongest industrial power
in Europe.
German Customs House – got rid of trade barriers
between German states, opened up a wider
market.
Railway technology helped with transport of coal.
Profited from the British experience – could learn
from their mistakes. (Don’t have to invent things.)

Did invent dynamo to generate electricity.


Isolated itself from outside ideas, lagged behind until after
contact with Matthew Perry (mid-1800’s)
Perry’s steam-powered ships impressed Japan



Initially thought dragons were coming – saw the steam, didn’t
know what it was.
Industrialized rapidly after 1868.
Emperor Meiji realized how far behind Japan was, that
times had changed. (time of samurai and dragons had
passed)
Importing goods from U.S. and Britain
Became aggressive about not importing, and producing own
goods.
 Borrowed European technology and learned from European
mistakes.



Modernized military

Paid attention to Germany




Strong government
Rich natural resources
Rapidly increasing population
Inventions that boosted agriculture


Cotton gin and mechanical reaper
Canals and railroads


Steel and machinery industries boomed
1869 transcontinental railroad

Population of Europe and America exploded
World population doubled from 1800 to 1850
 Decline in death, wars and diseases
 People were well-fed and healthier
 Famine in Europe and America practically
disappeared.


Factories for different industries opened all
across Britain.
New jobs/new labor system
 Workers on shifts, set hours, set duties
 Families went to work in factories (even women and
kids)
 Factories not safe
 Society changed due to population shift


Emergence of industrial middle class
Shift in power from agriculture to manufacturing
 New, well-educated middle class
 People who built and managed the factories, bought
machines, predicted markets
 Bankers, merchants, lawyers, doctors, engineers,
professors and their families.
 Gain more and more social influence and political
power


Emergence of working class
Men, women and children who worked 12-16 hours
a day in the factories, 6 days a week.
 Most unskilled and replaceable
 Very regulated lives – breaks at certain times, leave
only with permission, worked in bad conditions,
fines for breaking rules, abuses (beatings)
 Tenements – overcrowded rooms


Middle and Working Classes poured into the
cities.

Cities became large, crowded, unclean, and unsafe.
 1800’s houses did not have running water, most cities




didn’t have sewers.
Garbage in streets, smoke from factories in the air
1870’s – iron pipes, flush toilets, running water, public
sewers, paved streets, street lights.
Law enforcement – police officers
Suburbs came with improved transportation

Public Education
Industrialists wanted workers who could read and
write
 Education to improve life of children
 Lower class children attended only as required, then
went to work to help families.
 Elementary education common for women, not
much secondary education until late 1800’s.



Took jobs in textile mills or factories
Young women continued to work traditional
domestic service jobs.


Middle class women did not have to work




Hired as maids, cooks, and nannies by the new
middle class in cities
Stayed home, hired help
Began speaking out for roles outside the home
Independence
Late 1800s new jobs: nurses, secretaries,
telephone operators


DIVISION OF LABOR
INTERCHANGEABLE PARTS


Lowered costs
Greater profits for owners
 Eli Whitney (muskets) late 1700s
 Henry Ford (assembly line/cars) 1900s


Before industrialization, businesses were
usually very small.
After, much larger – corporations.

Adam Smith


Founder of classical economics
2 natural laws govern economics/business
 Law of supply and demand: prices and profits depend
on amount of goods available and demand for those
goods. Scarcity drives up prices.
 Law of competition: as manufacturers compete with
each other to sell products, they must reduce prices.

People should be free to engage in whatever
business they chose.

Karl Marx

Published The Communist Manifesto with Friedrich
Engels in 1848.
 “The history of all hitherto existing society is the
history of class struggles.”
 Capitalist get wealthier, workers get poorer, eventually
will seize power in socialist revolution.
 Believed economics was central to human life.
 Dreamed of revolution – workers of the world unite.
 Theories inspired communist movements of the 1900s.


Capitalism: Free to do business unrestricted by
laws, regulations or government controls. You
choose what you want to do, you make the
profit.
Socialism:


Governments own the means of production and
operate them for the benefit of all (rich or poor)
Do away with profit motive and competition,
everyone share in the profit.

Communism


Government owns the means of production and
controls all economic planning.
Democratic Socialism

Socialism can develop gradually through education
and democratic reform of government. Elect
socialist representatives, government would take
over production peacefully. People keep partial
control of economic planning through elections.
2
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Causes
Increased agricultural productivity
Growing population
New sources of energy, such as steam and coal
Growing demand for textiles and other massproduced goods
Improved technology
Available natural resources, labor, and money
Strong, stable governments that promoted
economic growth
Immediate Effects
Rise of factories
Changes in transportation and
communication
Urbanization
New methods of production
Rise of urban working class
Growth of reform movements
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Long-Term Effects
Growth of labor unions
Inexpensive new products
Spread of industrialization
Rise of big business
Expansion of public education
Expansion of middle class
Competition for world trade among
industrialized nations
Progress in medical care

similar documents