Current issues in School Leadership and

Report
Current issues in
School Leadership & Management
in Rwanda
Focus on
Teacher Development and Motivation
National Symposium on School Leadership
21-22 November 2013
Umubano Hotel
Emmanuel Muvunyi,
Rwanda Education Board
American Educational Research Association
“Scratch the surface of an excellent school and
you are likely to find an excellent principal. Peer
into a failing school and you will find weak
leadership”
Leadership has significant effects on student
learning, second only to the effects of the
quality of Curriculum and teachers’ instruction
Leithwood K., and Riehl, C., (2003)
This presentation has 3 parts
• Introduction
• Implications of recent Education (2003 –
2013) Policy to School L&M (needs,
opportunities and challenges)
• Preliminary findings from a study that
explores teachers' perceptions of the
changes in their motivation to teach during
2008-13
The presenter
• VVOB/MINEDUC School Management steering
committee (2010-2011)
• Visit to Belgium and UK in 2011 - Exploring
ways and partnerships to strengthen School
leadership in Rwandan education system
• Current responsibilities as head of
Examination and Accreditation, REB
• Drawing from my on-going study on changes
in teacher motivation (2008-13)
Theoretical categorization of
Factors determining teachers’ motivation (Frase, 1992)
Extrinsic motivation
WORK CONTEXT:
Teaching environment
Intrinsic motivation
WORK CONTENT:
Teaching itself
• Working conditions [class size, • Opportunities for
teaching load, student
professional
discipline, teaching materials]
development
• Quality of School management • Occupational status and
and professional support
vocational commitment
• Teacher deployment & staffing • Individual characteristics
and professional
• Basic physiological needs/living
organisations and
conditions [money, status,
teacher conduct
security]
National aspirations (Vision 2020, EDPRS, ESSP etc)
and International commitments (MDGs, EFA etc)
• Set ambitious standards for Learning for all
children (Access) and attaining the desired
learning outcomes
• Challenges paused by a complex learning
environment (history, resource constraints,
varying policy and curriculum requirements,
diversity of student characteristics, etc
All pause challenges to school leaders
Implications of Education recent
Policy reforms to School L&M
Access to Education
Emerging School L&M needs
UPE (2003), extended to 9YBE
(2009) and 12YBE (2012)
• Large class size
• High teaching load
• 1 head teacher for 9YBE
and 12YBE
• Community involvement
in school affairs
• Large numbers of
untrained teachers –
limited pedagogical skills
• Insufficient learning
materials
•
•
•
•
Community involvement in school
Double shifting
Teacher specialisation
Realignment of the curriculum
and course content
• Teacher training
• Decentralisation of procurement
and delivery of learning materials
Implications of Education recent
Policy reforms to School L&M
Access to Education
School L&M needs
UPE (2003), 9YBE (2009) , 12YBE
(2012)
• Learners move
distances to schools
• Teachers acquired
professional training
• Community involvement in
schools
• Double shifting
• Teacher specialisation
• Realignment of the curriculum
and course content
• Teacher training
• Decentralisation of procurement
and delivery of learning materials
Implications of Education recent
Policy reforms to School L&M
Teacher Development and Management (TDM) policy 2007
TDM policy provides for a substantial reform and addresses
challenges facing teacher education and management
• Pre 1998 supply of teachers was not coherently done
• No TTIs, no focus on teacher training
• Since 1998, teachers are receiving pre-service training
through the 12 PTCs , 2CoE, and UR (KIE)
Teachers’ management and
development structures and policies
National Teacher
Registration System (NTRS)
the cornerstone of teacher management at
central and decentralized levels (School, Sector,
District)
National Teacher Licensing
System (NTLS)
provide motivation, quality assurance for
teachers and create a teaching profession and
educational leadership career pathway
National Teacher Code of
Conduct (NTCC)
govern the professional ethics of teachers
Terms and Conditions of
Services (TACOS)
enable teacher contracts to be drawn up and
signed
National Teacher
Professional Standards
(NTPS)
enable the setting up of classroom competencies
expected of teachers
Teacher Appraisal and
Evaluation System (TAES)
facilitate on-going assessment of teacher
performance
Implications of Education recent
Policy reforms to School L&M
Teacher Development and Management (TDM) policy 2007
TDM policy provides for a substantial reform and addresses
challenges facing teacher education and management
• Establishment of the Teachers’ Savings and Credit Cooperative
(SACCO) which is an incentive for teacher motivation and
retention
• Through the loans, teachers are improving their economic
condition
Implications of Education recent
Policy reforms to School L&M
English as a Language
of Learning (LoL)
– Face to Face 20092011
– School Based
Mentoring 2012
Emerging School L&M needs
• Large numbers of
teachers with low
English language skills
• Ensure learners achieve
the Learning objectives
About the study
Teacher motivation and incentives in Rwanda:
An exploration into teachers' perceptions of the changes
in their motivation to teach during 2008-13
• Explores the trend of teacher motivation in Rwanda over 5 years (2008 -13)
• Study by Bennell et al. (2008), findings used as a baseline for the current
study
• Mixed methodology approach combining QUAL and QUANT methods
• Survey administered with sub-sample of 248 teacher (550 Bennel study)
• Purpose is to inquire about teachers’ perceptions on the impact of the
policy changes that took place during the last 5 years, in particular with
respect to how motivated they have been and seek to understand if
motivations are linked to policy changes
• 2 intertwined RQs:
(1) what are the main incentives introduced by the government of Rwanda between
2008 and 2013 to improve teachers' motivations, and what processes were
followed?
(2) In the opinion of teachers, how is that these incentives have changed, or not,
teachers' motivations to perform their jobs?
Administrators of your school (HTs, Dep. HTs and School
management committees) show commitment and
competence to lead the school well
1.63%
0.41%
6.5%
Strongly disagree
26%
Disagree
Not sure
66%
Agree
Strongly agree
The school management promotes good relationship between
the various categories of teachers at your school (Including:
Veteran teachers, NQTs, Volunteers and English language SBMs)
2%
0%
6%
26%
Strongly disagree
66%
Disagree
Not sure
Agree
Strongly agree
Do you consider the way teachers at your
school are managed & supported as a
source of your motivation to teach?
20%
Yes
80%
No
The ways in which teacher inspection,
promotions and transfers are done at my school
are sources of my motivation to teach
15%
3%
14%
11%
Strongly disagree
57%
Disagree
Not sure
Agree
Strongly agree
During 2008-13,
teachers in your school were respected
by the parents and community around the school
3%
14%
15%
11%
Strongly disagree
57%
Disagree
Not sure
Agree
Strongly agree
Are you a member of Umwalimu SACCO
teachers' cooperative?
19%
81%
Yes
No
Members of Umwalimu SACCO teachers' cooperative
who benefitted from the teachers loans (2008-13)
160
140
138
120
100
Benefited loan scheme
80
60
55
44
44
40
20
0
Member of SACCO
Not member of SACCO
Not benefitted loan
scheme
What is the impact of student behaviour to your
motivation to teach during 2008-13?
32%
68%
Motivated
Demotivated
Unfinished business
• Institutionalization of the School L&M
programme
• Teaching profession and educational
leadership career pathway
– PRESET – Centre at the Teacher Training
– INSET - School based approach
• How to create effective school leaders?

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