Current issues in School Leadership & Management in Rwanda Focus on Teacher Development and Motivation National Symposium on School Leadership 21-22 November 2013 Umubano Hotel Emmanuel Muvunyi, Rwanda Education Board American Educational Research Association “Scratch the surface of an excellent school and you are likely to find an excellent principal. Peer into a failing school and you will find weak leadership” Leadership has significant effects on student learning, second only to the effects of the quality of Curriculum and teachers’ instruction Leithwood K., and Riehl, C., (2003) This presentation has 3 parts • Introduction • Implications of recent Education (2003 – 2013) Policy to School L&M (needs, opportunities and challenges) • Preliminary findings from a study that explores teachers' perceptions of the changes in their motivation to teach during 2008-13 The presenter • VVOB/MINEDUC School Management steering committee (2010-2011) • Visit to Belgium and UK in 2011 - Exploring ways and partnerships to strengthen School leadership in Rwandan education system • Current responsibilities as head of Examination and Accreditation, REB • Drawing from my on-going study on changes in teacher motivation (2008-13) Theoretical categorization of Factors determining teachers’ motivation (Frase, 1992) Extrinsic motivation WORK CONTEXT: Teaching environment Intrinsic motivation WORK CONTENT: Teaching itself • Working conditions [class size, • Opportunities for teaching load, student professional discipline, teaching materials] development • Quality of School management • Occupational status and and professional support vocational commitment • Teacher deployment & staffing • Individual characteristics and professional • Basic physiological needs/living organisations and conditions [money, status, teacher conduct security] National aspirations (Vision 2020, EDPRS, ESSP etc) and International commitments (MDGs, EFA etc) • Set ambitious standards for Learning for all children (Access) and attaining the desired learning outcomes • Challenges paused by a complex learning environment (history, resource constraints, varying policy and curriculum requirements, diversity of student characteristics, etc All pause challenges to school leaders Implications of Education recent Policy reforms to School L&M Access to Education Emerging School L&M needs UPE (2003), extended to 9YBE (2009) and 12YBE (2012) • Large class size • High teaching load • 1 head teacher for 9YBE and 12YBE • Community involvement in school affairs • Large numbers of untrained teachers – limited pedagogical skills • Insufficient learning materials • • • • Community involvement in school Double shifting Teacher specialisation Realignment of the curriculum and course content • Teacher training • Decentralisation of procurement and delivery of learning materials Implications of Education recent Policy reforms to School L&M Access to Education School L&M needs UPE (2003), 9YBE (2009) , 12YBE (2012) • Learners move distances to schools • Teachers acquired professional training • Community involvement in schools • Double shifting • Teacher specialisation • Realignment of the curriculum and course content • Teacher training • Decentralisation of procurement and delivery of learning materials Implications of Education recent Policy reforms to School L&M Teacher Development and Management (TDM) policy 2007 TDM policy provides for a substantial reform and addresses challenges facing teacher education and management • Pre 1998 supply of teachers was not coherently done • No TTIs, no focus on teacher training • Since 1998, teachers are receiving pre-service training through the 12 PTCs , 2CoE, and UR (KIE) Teachers’ management and development structures and policies National Teacher Registration System (NTRS) the cornerstone of teacher management at central and decentralized levels (School, Sector, District) National Teacher Licensing System (NTLS) provide motivation, quality assurance for teachers and create a teaching profession and educational leadership career pathway National Teacher Code of Conduct (NTCC) govern the professional ethics of teachers Terms and Conditions of Services (TACOS) enable teacher contracts to be drawn up and signed National Teacher Professional Standards (NTPS) enable the setting up of classroom competencies expected of teachers Teacher Appraisal and Evaluation System (TAES) facilitate on-going assessment of teacher performance Implications of Education recent Policy reforms to School L&M Teacher Development and Management (TDM) policy 2007 TDM policy provides for a substantial reform and addresses challenges facing teacher education and management • Establishment of the Teachers’ Savings and Credit Cooperative (SACCO) which is an incentive for teacher motivation and retention • Through the loans, teachers are improving their economic condition Implications of Education recent Policy reforms to School L&M English as a Language of Learning (LoL) – Face to Face 20092011 – School Based Mentoring 2012 Emerging School L&M needs • Large numbers of teachers with low English language skills • Ensure learners achieve the Learning objectives About the study Teacher motivation and incentives in Rwanda: An exploration into teachers' perceptions of the changes in their motivation to teach during 2008-13 • Explores the trend of teacher motivation in Rwanda over 5 years (2008 -13) • Study by Bennell et al. (2008), findings used as a baseline for the current study • Mixed methodology approach combining QUAL and QUANT methods • Survey administered with sub-sample of 248 teacher (550 Bennel study) • Purpose is to inquire about teachers’ perceptions on the impact of the policy changes that took place during the last 5 years, in particular with respect to how motivated they have been and seek to understand if motivations are linked to policy changes • 2 intertwined RQs: (1) what are the main incentives introduced by the government of Rwanda between 2008 and 2013 to improve teachers' motivations, and what processes were followed? (2) In the opinion of teachers, how is that these incentives have changed, or not, teachers' motivations to perform their jobs? Administrators of your school (HTs, Dep. HTs and School management committees) show commitment and competence to lead the school well 1.63% 0.41% 6.5% Strongly disagree 26% Disagree Not sure 66% Agree Strongly agree The school management promotes good relationship between the various categories of teachers at your school (Including: Veteran teachers, NQTs, Volunteers and English language SBMs) 2% 0% 6% 26% Strongly disagree 66% Disagree Not sure Agree Strongly agree Do you consider the way teachers at your school are managed & supported as a source of your motivation to teach? 20% Yes 80% No The ways in which teacher inspection, promotions and transfers are done at my school are sources of my motivation to teach 15% 3% 14% 11% Strongly disagree 57% Disagree Not sure Agree Strongly agree During 2008-13, teachers in your school were respected by the parents and community around the school 3% 14% 15% 11% Strongly disagree 57% Disagree Not sure Agree Strongly agree Are you a member of Umwalimu SACCO teachers' cooperative? 19% 81% Yes No Members of Umwalimu SACCO teachers' cooperative who benefitted from the teachers loans (2008-13) 160 140 138 120 100 Benefited loan scheme 80 60 55 44 44 40 20 0 Member of SACCO Not member of SACCO Not benefitted loan scheme What is the impact of student behaviour to your motivation to teach during 2008-13? 32% 68% Motivated Demotivated Unfinished business • Institutionalization of the School L&M programme • Teaching profession and educational leadership career pathway – PRESET – Centre at the Teacher Training – INSET - School based approach • How to create effective school leaders?