D Wark - NuPhys 2013

Report
NuPhys 2013
Current and Future Prospects on
Long-Baseline Experiments in
Europe
NuPhys 2013
IoP, London
Dec. 19th, 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford University/RAL
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Future Prospects on Long Baseline
Experiments In Europe
In the aftermath of the CERN Strategy,
they are perhaps somewhat bleak….
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Current and Future Prospects on
Long-Baseline Experiments in
Europe
NuPhys 2013
IoP, London
Dec. 19th, 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford University/RAL
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Current and Future Prospects on
Long-Baseline Experiments
(Partially) Done by Europeans
NuPhys 2013
IoP, London
Dec. 19th, 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford University/RAL
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
>50% of members are from Europe.
Largest neutrino experiment in Europe
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
European Contributions:
• UA1/NOMAD Magnet
• TPC MicroMegas
• TPC/FGD Electronics
• Contributions to INGRID
• ECAL
• Trip-T electronics
• DAQ
• Software
• Analysis
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
European Contributions
to T2K Beamline
Beam Baffle
Dump Design
Target, Target Design,
Target Remote Handling
Beam Window
Demonstrates the ability of Europe to
make significant contributions to facilities
which are not in Europe!
Neutrino Physics
ICHEP talk by Justin Evans
735km
ICHEP2010 -- T.Nakaya (Kyoto) --
Dave8 Wark
Imperial College/RAL
NuPhys 2013
CNGS
OPERA has now seen 3 tau-appearance
events, confirming the oscillation
interpretation of q23-driven oscillations
nt ?
ICARUS has successfully pioneered the
underground operation of a large LAr
detector, and set useful limits on sterile n
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
This was followed by the LAGUNA-LBNO
Design Study to concentrate on Long
Baseline options identified by LAGUNA
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
MH effect increases with baseline,
CP effect is ~roughly constant.
Note size of CP effect in second maximum…
2nd Max + MH → Concentrate on longest baseline.
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
1477
An ESS Based Super Beam for
Lepton CP violation discovery
arXiv:1309.7022v2 [hep-ex] 14 Oct 2013
Tord Ekelof, Uppsala Univerisity
of behalf of the ESSνSB Collaboration
2013-11-26
CERN Neutrino Meeting
Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University
32
The ESS 2 GeV proton linac as proton
driver for a neutrino Super Beam
The European Spallation Source (ESS), which
is being built in Lund, Sweden, will have a
2 GeV 5 MW (alternatively 2.5 GeV 5MW)
superconduction linac to produce
1.6x1016 protons on target/second*
which is two orders of magnitude
more than any other planned
proton driver for a neutrino beam
•
•
T2HK – JPARK to HyperKamiokande 30 GeV, 0.75 MW ->
1.6x1014 protons on target/second
•
•
LBNE – FNAL to Sanford Lab 60-120 GeV, 0.7 MW –>
1.1x1014 protons on target/second
First beams 2019
Full linac power installed 2022
-19
* = Power [W]/(Energy [eV]x1.6x10
CERN)Neutrino Meeting
2013-11-26
Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University
33
How can the ESS linac be used as a proton
driver for a neutrino Super Beam, maintaining
spallation neutron production unchanged?
Proposal; By rising the linac 2.86-ms-pulse frequency from 14
Hz, i.e. 4.0 % duty cycle, to 28 Hz, i.e. 8.0% duty cycle,
thereby doubling the average RF power from 5MW to 10 MW
without increasing the instantaneous power of 125 MW.
This will allow for that 14 linac pulses per second be used for neutron
physics and 14 pulses for neutrino physics. For this it will be necessary
to double the output power from the linac RF sources and the linac
cooling capacity. Modulators, amplifiers and power transfer equipment
should be designed for the doubled average power of the linac already
CERN Neutrino Meeting
2013-11-26
34
during
the build-up phase. Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University
Lay-out of ESS neutrino beam
Of course will need target station
and horns which can take 5 MW!
Neutron
spallation
target
p
ESS linac
HAccumulator
2013-11-26
CERN Neutrino Meeting
Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University
35
35
Several mines
located at the
second oscillation
maximum distance
from ESS/Lund
available
2013-11-26
CERN Neutrino Meeting
Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University
36
To measure low energy neutrinos a large water
Cherenkov detector is required (low neutrino cross
section) and sufficient (few inelastic events)
A “Hyperkamiokande” type
detector to study;
•Neutrinos from accelerators
(Super Beam)
but also
•Supernovae neutrinos (burst + "relics"),
•Solar Neutrinos,
The MEMPHYS detector of the
FP7 LAGUNA project;
•Atmospheric neutrinos,
•Geoneutrinos
•Proton decay up to ~1035 years life time.
All these other measurements require
the detector to be shielded by ~1000
m rock from cosmic ray muons
2013-11-26
CERN Neutrino Meeting
Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University
•Fiducial mass: 440 kt in 3
cylinders 65x65 m
•Readout: 3x81k 12” PMTs,
30% geom. cover.
•Order of magnitude cost :
700 MEuro
37
37
Low background because of low ν energy
Number of νμ->νe oscillation signal (blue) and background (other colors)
events for electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos for 2+8 GeV run as
detected in a MEMPHYS type detector after 2 years of neutrino running
(left) plus 8 years of antineutrino running (right) with a baseline length
of 540 km and 2.5 GeV protons
neutrinos
anti-neutrinos
2013-11-26
CERN Neutrino Meeting
Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University
38
38
The signifiance in terms of number of standard
deviations with which CP violation could be
discovered for δCP-values from -180 to +180
degrees for 2.0 GeV protons
2013-11-26
CERN Neutrino Meeting
Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University
39
Coarse cost estimate
Unit: Billion Euro (109 Euro)
Upgrading the ESS accelerator
0.1
Accumulator ring
0.2(*
Target station
0.2
Detector
0.7
The ESS linac
0.6
-------------------------------------------------Green field project cost
1.8
Using the ESS linac
-0.6
-------------------------------------------------ESS neutrino Super beam project 1.2
(*
this cost to possibly be shared with the neutron physics community
2013-11-26
CERN Neutrino Meeting
Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University
40
NuPhys 2013
Neutrinos in the CERN Strategy…
• The good news is that the European Strategy identified
only 4 top priorities.
• The highest priority was the complete exploitation of the
LHC.
• The other three top priorities (not ranked) were doing
R&D on CERN’s next big project, discussing
contributions to the ILC, and long-baseline neutrino
oscillations.
The bad news, however:
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
• We are already heavily involved in Hyper-Kamiokande
as a natural outgrowth of our activities in T2K.
• First European-wide meeting for Hyper Kamiokande
was held yesterday at QMUL – 41 registered!
• Europeans likely to be heavily involved in near detectors
and other systems like electronics and DAQ.
• European involvement in HK is essentially certain, we
are discussing how much and on what.
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
DG Neutrino Project
mandate and recent
P5-DG presentation
n + charged
beams for all
experiments
MIND
LAGUNA-PROTO
New detectors?
NESSiE
ICARUS T150
Contract for design approved by Finance
Committee and Council last week!
NuPhys 2013
Conclusions (I)
• A large (~400) and effective European Long-Baseline
community exists who have been heavily involved in
K2K, MINOS, T2K, ICARUS, OPERA, etc.
• Many of these physicists (and many others as well) want
to be involved in future activities in this field.
• In light of the European Strategy is seems unlikely that a
long baseline experiment will be built in Europe in the
near term.
• European physicists will play a significant part in the
design, construction, and operation of the Hyper
Kamiokande experiment – more are welcome!
• Whatever else happens, we will need hadron production
measurements like NA61 and cross-section
measurements like nStorm, which will require
substantial European investment.
Dave Wark
Oxford U./RAL
NuPhys 2013
Conclusions (II)
• A complex negotiation is taking place concerning how
Europeans will contribute to the LBNE project, however
CERN has been mandated to assist and is showing a
strong willingness to do so.
• The LAGUNA-LBNO and LBNE collaborations have
been conducting high-level discussions concerning
merging the collaborations.
• The WA104 and WA105 projects at CERN are both
aimed at contributing significant European effort to the
LBNE far-detector(s), but greater clarification of goals
and schedules are needed and discussions continue.
• It is clear this area of physics will remain very active –
highly significant discoveries remain to be made, and
Europeans will help make them!
• I haven’t talked about a Neutrino Factory, but that
should remain the long-term goal (and therefore we have
Dave Wark
to finish MICE!)
Oxford U./RAL

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