Eff-Report-Writing - University of Bradford

Report
Effective Report Writing – The Basics
This workshop will:
- Provide a practical guide on how reports differ from
other types of academic writing
- Look at the most common features used for this type of
writing
- Give some insights into stylistic conventions used in
report-writing, whilst highlighting the need for a subjectspecific approach.
Louise Livesey
.
Academic Skills Adviser
Today’s Plan
1.Differences between essays and reports
2.Generic structure
3.Section content
4.Structural differences between disciplines
and for scientific reports
5.Report writing style
6.A report-writing checklist
1.Differences between
essays and reports
• Essays = ideas, concepts, hypothetical notions
• Reports = actualities rational reality, highly
structured, standardised format
–
–
–
–
–
Analysis based
More descriptive
Summative
Predict
Recommend
2.Generic structure
Title
Acknowledgements
Abstract
Contents
Tables and
illustrations
Background/context
Review of literature
Methodology and
methods
Measurement criteria
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendations
References
Bibliography
Appendices
2.Generic structure
Common Essential Structures
• Introduction
• Background/Context
• Development & Analytical Process
(Methodology)
• Discussion
• Conclusion
3.Section content
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Abstract: summary and experimental report
Introduction: aims and structure
Background/context: why this project
Review of literature: most important writings
Methodology and method: research conduct and
participants/items
Discussion: evaluation, explain results, limitations
Conclusions/recommendations: sum up project and
future research
References: of all sources
Appendices: documentation
4. Structure differences between
disciplines and for scientific reports
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(Abstract [summary of whole report])
Aim (purpose of experiment, title, hypothesis)
Method (practical details, any difficulties)
Results (observations, calculations)
Discussion (critical evaluation)
Conclusion (summary of findings)
References
4. Structure differences between
disciplines and for scientific reports
Your department might have specific
requirements for the structure of your
reports – be sure to check and follow any
instructions they give you.
5.Report writing style
Conventions for all academic writing
•
•
•
•
No abbreviations
Be clear and concise
Be objective
Additional:
− No contractions/colloquialisms/rhetorical questions
− Do not overstate evidence
− Use passive voice
5.Report writing style
Conventions for academic report writing
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use italics, upper case, etc. appropriately
Use appropriate tenses
Be accurate
Consistent and accepted abbreviations
Clear and concise
Be objective
No contractions/ colloquialisms/ rhetoric/
overstating
• Use passive
6.A report writing checklist
1. Report meets assignment brief and marking
criteria
2. Title worded precisely and reflects report
Abstract
Contents page
Introduction
Literature Review
Research Method
Results
Conclusions/Recommendations
Appendices
Activity 3: What else do you need?
References
CALT Learning. (2007) Writing More Objectively. Victoria:
Monash University. [online] Available at:
http://www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/writing/science/1.6.xm
l [Accessed 23.6.2014]
Cottrell, S. (2013) The Study Skills Handbook. 4th Ed.
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Neville, C. (2006) Report Writing. Bradford: University of
Bradford. [online] Available at:
http://www.brad.ac.uk/management/media/management/els
/Report-Writing.pdf [Accessed 23.6.2014]
Academic Skills Advice Service
• Where are we? Chesham Building B0.23
• What do we do? Support undergraduate students with
their academic skills by running clinics and workshops,
having bookable appointment slots, and enabling
students to drop-in for Instant Action.
• Who are we? Michael and Helen specialise in Maths
Support; Lucy and Russell advise students on academic
study skills; and I (Louise) deliver the workshops
• When can you come for help? Everyday both face to face
and on-line
• How do I get in touch? Email: [email protected] or website www.brad.ac.uk/academicskills
Any questions?

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