Satellite Imagery and Remote Sensing

Report
Satellite Imagery and
Remote Sensing
NC Climate Fellows
June 2012
DeeDee Whitaker
SW Guilford High
Earth/Environmental Science &
Chemistry
Outline
 What is remote sensing?
 What role does the
electromagnetic spectrum play
in satellite imagery?
 How does remote sensing
work?
 How can satellite imagery be
applied to climate change?
Applicable NC Essential Standards
Earth Environmental Science-1.1.3, 1.1.4, 2.2.3,
2.2.1, 2.5.1, 2.5.2, 2.5.3, 2.6.3, 2.8.3
Biology-2.1.4, 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 4.2.1
Physical Science- 3.2.1
Physics- 2.2
Middle School Science- 6.P.1, 6.P.3, 6.E.2, 6.L.2,
7.E.1, 8.P.2, 8.E.1, 8.E.2
What is remote sensing?
 Identifying, observing, and
measuring an object without
coming into direct contact with
it (NASA)
So many satellites and sensors
According to NASA-there are about 3000
satellites operating in Earth orbit in 2012.
US Satellite Orbits
Constellation
What role does the electromagnetic
spectrum play in satellite imagery?
A
Visible Light
Differences Among Infrared Regions
Near IR- (0.7 - 1)microns
740- (3000-5200 K)
Earth’s surface and above
Mid IR 5 to (25-40) microns
(92.5-140) to 740 K
only above the atmosphere
Far IR (25-40) to (200-350) microns
(10.6-18.5) to (92.5-140) K
only above the atmosphere
Satellite Imagery-Remote Sensing
 Satellite imagery is a special case of


photography.
Radiation bands in the electromagnetic
spectrum that are reflected from the Earth’s
surface back into space can be collected by
satellite sensors and stored digitally.
The most common electromagnetic bands
used in satellite imagery are visible light,
near infrared radiation (NIR), and infrared
radiation (IR).
Electromagnetic Spectrum and Satellite
Sensors
Different types
of earth viewing
satellite sensors
operate in
different
portions of the
electromagnetic
spectrum.
© DLR-DFD, 1996
http://marine.rutgers.edu/mrs/education/class/yuri/erb.html
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Examples of Satellite Imagery
NASA and Google Earth
Visible and Near IR Comparisons
 What different types of
information do IR and visible
wavelengths supply?
Differences between ground IR data,
aerial data, and satellite data?
 Ease of data
collection
 Data extent,
records
 Spatial Resolution
 Temporal
Resolution
 Spectral Resolution
Tradeoffs in Sensor Design
To increase the signal to noise ratio,
we can :
  Field of View
How
do
these
  Dwell time
changes affect
  Width of
the different
spectral bands
resolutions?
Landsat 7 Program
 Land cover and
land cover change
 Temporal: 16 days
 Spectral: 4-8 bands
 Spatial: 30 m
 http://earthobservatory.
nasa.gov/Features/Land
sat/
MODIS (on 2 satellites, Moderate Resolution
Imaging Spectroradiometer)
 Temporal: Daily
 Global land cover
 Spectral: 36 bands and ocean RS
 Spatial: 250-1000 m  Fire monitoring
 http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/about
IKONOS- commercial
 Temporal: On Demand
 Spectral: 4 bands,
panchromatic
 Spatial: 1-4 m
 Local land cover
 http://www.satimagingcorp.com/galleryikonos.html
JASON (Active)
 Temporal: 10 days
 Sea level
 Spectral: NA (Active)
 Spatial: ~ 2 km

http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/satellite_missions/list_of_sate
llites/jas2_general.html
Sensor Platforms
 Pigeons, Planes, and Satellites
Pigeons, planes, and satellites
How might scientists use IR
data to study the earth’s
surface?
Kohrs, Infrared Image
How can satellite imagery be applied to
climate change?
 Weather
forecasting
 Storm tracking
 Ocean
temperature
monitoring
 Sea level changes
 Large scale land
mass changes
Aerial Photography
 Works on the same principles
as satellite imagery
 Altitude is less giving better
resolution and more details.
 Used for change analysis,
planning, natural resource
management, and land use
identification.
Student Activities
 Spectral Analysis-inquiry exploration
 Satellite Imagery-internet
 NC OneMap-data and imagery
 http://www.nconemap.com/
 National Map-data and imagery
 http://nationalmap.gov/viewer.html
Summary
 Remote sensing allows us to observe
and monitor the earth surface
 Features on the ground can be
interpreted using spectral information
 Satellites have wide range of
purposes

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