Municipal waste - Avfall Sverige

Report
The Swedish Waste Management System
Content

Part 1:
– Sweden
– Avfall Sverige – The Swedish
Association of Waste
Management

Part 2
– Waste – a Resource
– The Development
– Responsibilities
– Operations

Part 3
– Overview Model
– Infrastructure
– Collection
– Recovery and Recycling

Part 4
– Waste Economy
– Means of Control
– Success Factors
– Challenges
– Vision and Long Term Goals

Part 5
– Waste Management on Export
– A new Swedish Platform
Important success factors
 Waste management is a public service
 Clear division of roles and responsibilities
 Clear national environmental targets showing the direction
and long-term regulations and economical steering
instruments
 Co-operation between municipalities
 Collaboration between public and private sectors
 Holistic system view- an integrated part of the sustinable city
 Co-operation within municipalites (Waste-, Energy-, Water-,
Urban- planning-, etc departements)
 A system based on source separation with focus on
communication and public engagement
 A system based on resource recovery
Part 1
Sweden
Avfall Sverige – The Swedish Association of
Waste Management
Sweden
 9,5 million inhabitants
 450 000 km2
Avfall Sverige
 The Swedish Association of Waste Management
 400 members, primarily within the public sector, but
also private enterprises -service providers for the
Swedish citizens
 Networking, training and lobbying
 National member of Cewep, ECN, ISWA and
Municipal Waste Europe
Part 2
Waste – a Resource
The Development
Responsibilities
Operations
Waste - a resource
Treatment of household waste in Sweden,
2012 (%) and the resources produced from it
Material recycling
Biological recycling
Energy recovery
Landfill
Waste - a resource
Treatment of household waste in Sweden,
2012 (%) and the resources produced from it
2012:
• 14,7 TWh district energy
-> 20 % of the total
district energy in
Sweden - the heating
need of 900 000 homes
• 1,7 TWh electricity – the
need of 250 000 homes
Material recycling
Biological recycling
Energy recovery
Landfill
2012:
• 353 GWh vehicle-fuel produced from
foodwaste replaced about 30 millions liters
of petrol.
• 725 000 tonnes biofertilizer produced
replacing industrial fertilizer
Waste hierarchy
Unique results
100
90
80
70
60
Material recycling
50
Biological recycling
40
Energy recovery
Landfill
30
20
10
0
Sweden 2010
EU 2010
USA 2010
Towards zero landfilling - a 40 years perspective
62 %
1%
Important steps of development
 Late 1800:
Cholera-epidemic - start of
municipal waste management
 1950’s:
District heating systems developed
 1970’s and 80’s:
Oil crises - waste is being used for
district heating
An important part of the energy system
District energy in Sweden – fuel supply:
Electricity
Biofuels
Waste
heat
Waste
5%
Oil
Heatpumps
Peat
Biofuels
1980
Carbon
Gas
Waste
Oil
Electricity
Heatpumps Fossil fuels
1993
Waste
heat
Waste
Peat
Waste
heat
Biofuels
2008
Source:
An important part of the energy system
District energy in Sweden – fuel supply:
Electricity
Heatpumps
Fossil fuel
Waste heat
Waste
Peat
Biofuels
Source:
Towards zero landfilling
Household waste to landfill per year (tonnes)
1600000
50 %
1400000
Landfill tax
introduced
1200000
1000000
Ban on landfill of
combustible waste
Producers’ responsibility
introduced
800000
600000
Ban on landfill of
organic waste
National target
on food waste
recycling
Municipal
waste
planning
compulsory
400000
200000
2010
2005
2000
1995
1990
0
Clear division of roles and responsibilities
Municipalities:
• Collection and treatment of
municipal waste
Citizens/households:
• Separation and
leave/transport
waste at indicated
collection points
Producers:
• Collection and treatment
of waste within the
Producers Responsibility
Companies/Indust
ries:
• Handling of own
generated waste
Plans, regulators, permissions and supervision
National level



Parliament
 National environmental targets
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
 National waste plan
 Produces national legislation and guidelines
National environmental courts (5 plus one superior):
 Gives permissions to larger treatment plants
Regional level (21 counties)

County Administrative Board - government authority:
 Regional environmental targets
 Permissions and control for most treatment plants
 Supervision of the regional treatment capacity
Municipal level (290 municipalities)

Municipal authorithies:
 Local environmental targets
 Local waste plans and regulations
 Permissions and control of smaller treatment plants
Organisation and operation
Municipalities deal with their responsibility in different ways and
design their own waste management organisation
Organisation:
 About 50 % municipal companies
Collection:
 73 % outsourcing
(mainly to private companies)
Treatment:
 About 65% outsourcing
(mainly to municipal companies)
Owner-ship of waste incinerators
 Municipally owned
plant
– Co-owned regional
waste company (2 out
of 32)
– Full-owned energy
company
– Full-owned multi-utility
company
 Privatly owned plant
(4,5 out of 32)
Clear division of roles and responsibilities
Responsibility
Municipalities
Citizens/hous
eholds
Producers
Implementation and operation
Private and public
waste
management
sector
• Knowledge- and
Equipment
supply
Companies
/Industries
• Treatment- and
Collection
services
Co-operation
Co-operation – the solution to an
increasingly complex waste
management
Thru
• Common municipal waste
company (20 regional
companies in Sweden)
• Common municipal waste
association (8 associations in
Sweden with totally 28
municipalities)
• Common board (4 common
boards in Sweden with totally
9 municipalities)
• Common procurement on
specific issues matters
Part 3
Overview Model
Infrastructure
Collection
Recovery and Recycling
Overview model
Housholds or
companies
Waste prevention
New products:
Biogas, new materials,
district heating,
electricity, bio-fertilizer
Collection and transport
Recycling stations
Recycling centers
Curbside collection
Materialrecycling
Biological recycling
Energy recovery
Landfill
Public awarness - a success factor
Key messages and tools for motivation and
to facilitate collaboration:
– Communication
– Development of self instructive systems
– Feed back of the results and that ”what I do
matters”
– Emphasize on the waste holders
responsibility and participation
Waste prevention
 Long tradition of reuse through flea markets,
second hand, collection at recycling parks, etc
 Deposit fee system for bevarage
containers/bottles
 Foodwaste, textiles, electronical and
demolition waste in focus – goals proposed
 Largest challenge: decoupling between
generated waste and economic growth
Resource
recovery focus
Quality
Source
separation
Resource
recovery focus
Quality
Source
separation
Secure
handling of
hazardous
waste
Infrastructure
Collection of waste from households
based on source separation
 Curb side collection
 5 800 unmanned recycling drop-off
stations
 630 manned drop-off recycling centers
Treatment and recycling of waste
based on the charcter of the waste
 60 organic waste facilities
 34 waste to energy plants
 78 landfills
Collection
Collection of waste from
households based on
source separation
 Curbside collection for combustible
and food waste (and sometimes
packaging and paper)
 5 800 unmanned recycling drop-off
stations for for packaging and paper
 630 manned drop-off recycling centers
for bulky, electronical and hazardous
waste
 Various solutions for hazardous waste
collection
Innovation and trends in collection
 Multi compartment collection
vessels
 Optical sorting
 Vehicles on biogas
 Automated vacuum systems
 Underground containers
Infrastructure
Treatment and recycling of
waste based on the character of
the waste
 60 organic waste facilities
 34 waste to energy plants
 78 landfills
Recycling centers
A system based on resource focus
Materials
Food waste
Products
Biogas Biofertilizer
Virgin materials
and energy saved
Petrol saved and
industrial fertilizer
saved
Combustible waste
District
energy
Electricity
Fossil and other
fuels saved
Hazardous waste
Direct
environmental
benifit
Environmental
protection costs
saved
A system based on resource focus
Materials
Food waste
2012:
Products •
Biogas Biofertilizer
353 GWh vehicle-fuel
produced from foodwaste
replaced about 30 millions
liters of petrol.
• 725 000 tonnes
Virgin materials
Petrol saved and
biofertilizer
produced
and energy saved
industrial
fertilizer
replacing
industrial
saved
fertilizer
Combustible waste
Hazardous waste
2012
District
Electricity
Direct
• 13 TWh district energy energy
environmental
> 20 % of the total
benifit
district energy in
Sweden / the heating
need of 900 000 homes
Fossil and other
• 1,7
TWh
electricity ->
fuels
saved
need of 250 000 homes
Environmental
protection costs
saved
Production of biogas and bio-fertilizer
 The most increasing
treatment method
 58 plants
 Energy recovery by the
production of biogas used
as a vehicle-fuel
 Recycling of nutritions to
farming-land by the
production of bio-fertilizer
During 2012, 353 GWh vehicle-fuel was
produced from foodwaste replacing about
30 millions liters of petrol. 725000 tonnes
biofertilizer is produced yearly in Sweden.
Generation of district heating and electricity
 Covers around 20 % of the
total district heating in
Sweden, equals the needs
of 900 000 homes
 Produces electricity
corresponding to the needs
of 250 000 homes
 Advanced and secure flue
gas treatment
 Most of the rest-products
can be recycled
Total energy production 2012:
District heating: 13 TWh
Electricity: 1,7 TWh
(including industral waste)
Energy recovery of waste
34 plants:
 Receiving 50 000 – 700
000 tonnes yearly (2012: 32
plants)
 Recovering yearly (2012: 32
plants)
– totally 5 042 000 tonnes
– of which 2 270 000 tonnes
municipal waste
 Gate fee approx 370-710
SEK/tonnes (average 500
SEK)
The most energy efficient plants in the world
Recovered energy per tonne household waste incinerated
3,0
MWh/ton
Electricity
Heat
2,5
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
0,0
If industrial waste was included in the
diagram the Swedish result would be
almost 3 MWh/tonnes
Efficient and clean waste incineration
Clean waste incineration
 Most emissions
decreased with 90-99
% since 1985:
– Strict emission
regulations
– Fee on NOx
(nitrooxygen)
Reduced weight and volume
• 15-20 weight% bottom ash
• 3-5 weight% fly ash
From landfills to modern recycling facilities
(Illustrator: Per Josefsson)
An integrated part of a holistic system
Products
Households
Material
recycling
Farms
Sewage water
cleaning
Biosolids
Waste
Anaerobic
digestion
Vehicle fuel
Landfill
Incineration
Biogas
Other fuels
Cooling/ heating
production
Electricity
production
Part 4
Waste Economy
Means of Control
Success Factors
Challenges
Vision and Long Term Goals
Waste economy
Municipal waste:
 All costs covered by
municipal waste fees
(not by taxes)
 The fee is decided
by each municipal
board
 Non-profit
 Allowed to be
differentiated to
encourage source
separation for
recycling
Municipal waste
within producers’
responsibility:
 Costs covered by a
fee added to the
price of every
product
 The fee is decided
by the producers
Waste fee
Average yearly fee per
household 2011:
• Houses: 220 EUR
• Flats: 140 EUR
Average daily fee
per household
Costs for municipal waste management
Administration
and
information
Curb side 14%
collection,
bulky waste
1%
Recycling
centers,
including
hazardous
waste
28%
Others
4%
Curb side
collection,
residual waste
31%
Treatment,
residual waste
22%
Cost for municipal waste management, 2010, average
Means of control
 Environmental objectives
 Government regulations, bans, and taxes, for
example:
 Tax on landfilling (since 2000)
 Ban on landfilling of combustible waste since 2002
 Ban on landfilling of organic waste since 2005
 Differentiated municipal waste tariffs
 Municipal waste planning
and regulations
 Information and
communication
Important success factors







Material recycling

Biological recycling
Energy recovery
Landfill

Waste management is a public service
Clear division of roles and
responsibilities
Clear national environmental targets
showing the direction and long-term
regulations and economical steering
instruments
Co-operation between municipalities
Collaboration between public and private
sectors
Holistic system view- an integrated part
of the sustinable city
Co-operation within municipalites
(Waste-, Energy-, Water-, Urbanplanning-, etc departements)
A system based on source separation
with focus on communication and public
engagement
A system based on resource recovery
Generated household waste in Sweden is predicted to
double 2010-2030
(Swedish EPA)
Generated waste world wide is predicted to rise with 72
% 2010-2025
(What a Waste-A global review of Solid Waste Management, mars
2012, World Bank Group)
Avfall Sverige’s vision
Zero waste!
Long-term goals until 2020:
 Decoupling between generated waste and
economic growth
Economic
growth
 Strong upward movement in waste
hierarchy
Generated
waste
BN
P
Part 5
Waste Management on Export
– A new Swedish Platform
Swedish Waste Management on Export
A new Swedish platform
built on co-operation
between the public and
private waste
management sector
SosExpo Warszawa Mars 2013
Aim with the new platform
To facilitate the export of
 Swedish knowledge about
waste management,
 products and services within
the waste sector,
through cooperation among
the public and the private
waste management sector.
A strategy based on cooperation
A network of actors in the public and private waste management
sector in Sweden:
- Municipalities/municipal companies
- Knowledge suppliers
- Technlogy suppliers
A strong Swedish platform with a unique mix of competences
Swedish Waste Management on Export
Contact and information
Project leader:
Jenny Åström
[email protected]
+46-70-5136612
• Information about swedish waste management in english : www.avfallsverige.se/in
english
• Information about the national platform for export of knowledge and technology:
www.avfallsverige.se/in-english/export

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