Introductory Remarks

Report
Where to with mm Wave
Spectrum?
Future Wireless Technology Forum
William Stucke
mmWave - 29 May 2014
Issues to Consider
•Need For Speed
•What is Spectrum?
•Spectrum Fees
•Spectrum Licensing Concepts
•Regulatory Framework
•Licencing Models
•Objective of the Workshop
The views expressed here are those of the Author and do not necessarily reflect those of his employer
Need For Speed
•Fixed
–Copper
–Fibre
–Fixed Wireless (incl. Microwave)
–Free Space Optics
•Mobile
•Satellite
•Spectrum shortage?
–Only if spectrum is inefficiently used
–New spectrum bands are becoming useful
What is Spectrum?
•“Spectrum” is the range of electromagnetic frequencies of interest.
•ICASA regulates from 9 kHz to 1000 GHz (1 THz)
•FM Radio uses from 87.5 MHz to 104 MHz
•UHF TV Broadcasting uses from 470 – 860 MHz
•Cellphones use 900, 1800, 2100 MHz bands, etc.
•Visible light is 400 – 789 THz
•ICASA only has a Spectrum Licensing Framework up to 30 GHz
•This FWTF Workshop is about dealing with frequencies higher than
30 GHz
Spectrum Fees
•ICASA introduced an Administered Incentive pricing
Scheme for Spectrum, taking effect in April 2012
•This attempts to model market forces, by making use of
seven factors for costing spectrum usage.
•There are two forms of the equation, one for PtP and
one for PtMP uses of spectrum
•The assumption is that a Spectrum Licence is issued for
a period of one year, and the fee for that year is paid in
advance.
Spectrum Fee Formula
Fee=(UNIT*BW*FREQ*CG*GEO*SHR*HOPMINI*UNIBI)
• Fundamental principle is paying for the amount of spectrum used:
–Fee = Unit cost per MHz
*
Number of MHz
–Fee =
*
BW
UNIT (R2000)
• Modified by a number of numerical factors
–Adds “incentives”
–Encourages some uses, discourages others
–Basic cost is multiplied by the factors, to increase or decrease the final
fee
• The minimum fee is defined as R120, to ease administration
Terms Used
•UNIT
•BW
•FREQ
•CG
•GEO
•SHR
•HOPMINI
•ASTER
•UNIBI
Cost per MHz (R2000)
Bandwidth
Frequency Band
Congestion
Geographical
Sharing
Minimum Hop Length
Area Sterilisation
Uni- or bi-directional
ZAR
MHz
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
FREQ Factor
Benefits and Defects
•AIP Spectrum Pricing has been very effective
•Simple spreadsheet easily available
•Reduces cost of PtP links
•Increases the cost of exclusivity
•Penalises those who previously paid nothing – or very little
•Increases efficiency
•Led to significant amounts of spectrum being handed back
•BUT
•Higher frequency high bandwidth uses are unaffordable
The Problem with Fees at High Frequencies
Bandwidth
BW
5000
Frequency
FREQ
60 000
High Demand Spectrum?
CG
No
High Density Geographic
GEO
Area?Low Density
Shared Usage?
SHR Shared Use
Unidirectional?
UNIBI Bidirectional
Hop Length
HOPMINI
1
(MHz)
(MHz)
Yes / No
Low / High
Exclusive / Shared
Bi- / UniBand Selected Minimum Hop Factor
km
38000
0 km
0
-5
Fee =
BW * FREQ *CG * GEO * SHR * UNIBI *HOPMINI
ANNUAL SPECTRUM FEE =
R 25 000.00 = Π (
UNIT *
R 2 000.00 5000
0.05
1
0.1
0.5
1
1 )
Solution to the Fee problem?
•Fairly simple – extend the FREQ table, giving lower
values than 0.05 for Frequencies > 30 GHz
•The cost of the same 5 GHz bandwidth at 60 GHZ varies
with the FREQ value thus:
Scenario
FREQ Factor
Cost in High Density Area
Cost in Low Density Area
Current
0.05
R250,000
R25,000
Low
0.005
R25,000
R2,500
Lower
0.001
R5,000
R500
Spectrum Licencing
•Concept of “Protection”
•Primary User
•Secondary User
•Shared Use
•Pre-defined Use
•Licence Exempt
•Dynamic Spectrum Assignment
Protection Allows many PtP Links
Regulatory Models
•Licence Exempt
•Licensing
–Pay a fee, use is (usually) coordinated with other
uses, protection obtained
•Registration
–Faster, cheaper, no protection?
•“Light Licensing” = ???
•Dynamic Spectrum Assignment
Licence Exempt Model
•Works well with Wi-Fi in the 2.4 & 5.8 GHz bands – within
limits
•Ideally suited for PECN uses, such as Personal Area
Networks
•No provision for protection – suck it and see
•Might not be so good for long range commercial PtP use.
Dynamic Spectrum Assignment Model
•Registration in a Geolocation Database
•Dynamic Spectrum Assignment – calculates possible
interference. If none, use is authorised
•In effect, an automated licensed PtP Model
•Same fee principle, with reduced FREQ factor
•Fast response, no human intervention required under
normal circumstances
Conventional Licensing
•Well understood, well accepted
•Good protection afforded
•Same fee principle, with reduced FREQ factor
•Slow and cumbersome
•Inefficient
•Expensive to implement
Over to You
Objective
To inform the regulator of industry-relevant and available
technologies which can have real impact here and now.
To propose regulations and frameworks that will enable
new opportunities for the industry and hence benefit all
customers, be they individuals, businesses or enterprise
consumers.
Thank you
[email protected]
[email protected]

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