When you think about good mathematicians, do you think of Vi Hart – the best mathematical doodler ever!?! men and women? Einstein´s Energy Release Equation - 1907 Taylor Series - Famous Women in Mathematics Euler´s Number – 17th Century Newton´s equation for the force between two objects – 17th Century Why are there no equations derived by women here? When did women start attending University? • At the beginning of the 20th century it was very difficult for women to obtain a university education. • In 1870 Emily Davies and Barbara Bodichon helped to set up Girton College, the first university college for women, but it was not recognised by the university authorities. What affect has this had on the modern view of • In 1880 Newnham College was established at Cambridge University. By as academics? 1910 there were justwomen over a thousand women students at Oxford and Cambridge. However, they had to obtain permission to attend lectures and were not allowed to take degrees. Without a university degree it was very difficult for women to enter the professions. After a long struggle, the medical profession had allowed women to become doctors. Even so, by 1900 there were only 200 female doctors. It was not until 1910 that women were allowed to become accountants and bankers. However there were still no female diplomats, barristers or judges. Hypatia: 370AD – 415AD Hypatia was the first recognized female mathematician. She was born in Alexandria, Egypt, around 350 AD. Besides being a mathematician, she was an astute astronomer and a philosopher. Is she the first recognised female mathematican because: a. She was the only women in thousands of years that happened to be good at maths. b. It was not a women´s place to take up academic studies. Winifred Edgerton Merrill: 1862 - 1951 The first women to receive a Ph. D in mathematics. "The granting of this degree was the outstanding event of the 1886 Columbia Commencement. When she was given her diploma, there was a terrible round of applause which all students in the body of the house kept up fully two minutes.“ (Mary Williams, 1887) She was offered a position as professor of mathematics at Wellesley in 1891, but declined because of her impending marriage. Emy Noether: 1882 - 1935 At her enrolment at the university, she was one of only two women among 1,000 students . A doctorate was awarded to her in 1907. She was in close correspondence with Einstein for many years. They had in-depth discussions on a branch of mathematics called noncommutative algebra. At the time of her death in 1935, Einstein referred to her as “The most significant creative mathematical genius produced since women gained access to higher education.” Questions 1. How many modern female mathematicians do you know the name of? 2. Does this mean that there are no female mathematicians who are doing brilliant work? 3. How many modern male mathematicians do you know the name of? Top Set Year 9 at School Average Trigonometry Test Score of Class: 60% Average Trigonometry Test Score of Girls: 60% Average Trigonometry Test Score of Boys: 60% Best Year 9 Mathematician: Girl Best Year 10 Mathematician: Boy Best Year 11 Mathematician: Girl Best Year 12 Mathematician: Boy The Field´s Medal Like the Nobel Prize for Maths but only given out once every 4 years. The last 52 Field´s Medal Winners were Men. In fact there has never been a female Field´s Medal Winner. Why do you think that is? Percentage of female mathematics professors in the US In 1995, women made up 18.7 percent of assistant math professors and 7.6 percent of the full professors. In 2003, women made up 26.5 percent of assistant math professors and 9.7 percent of full professors. The results also revealed that tenured female professors earned about 8 percent less than male colleagues. Many women get a close look at the academic prospects ahead and say, "This job is not designed for me." Is this now the generation which will break the mould with more female Field’s Medal winners?