Fork Lift Operation - University of Wisconsin

Report
Fork Lift Operation
29 CFR 1910.178
By:
UW-Eau Claire
Chaizong Lor, Safety Coordinator
Facilities Management
Fork Lift Operation
Training Objectives
• Forklift truck accidents
statistics
• Requirements for Fork Lift
Drivers
• Lifts are for Handling Materials
• General Safety Rules
• Drive Safely
• Safety and Operational
Checks
• Fork Lift Operation
UW-Eau Claire
• Picking Up a Load
• Putting a Load Down
• Safe Unloading of
Trailer
• Safe Stacking of
Loads
• Fork Lift Stability
• Tips to Avoid
“Tipping”
• Propane Fuel
Handling
Facilities Management
Fork Lift Truck Accidents Statistics
• NIOSH Reported in June 2001
– Forklifts strike pedestrians every day and result in
100 deaths and more than 20,000 injuries
annually in the United States alone
– Approximately every three days, someone in the
United States is killed in a forklift-related accident
– Each year, an additional 94,750 injuries related
forklift accidents are reported. The costs incurred
because forklift accidents are estimated to be
above $100 million
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Facilities Management
Requirements for Fork Lift Drivers
• Must posses a valid driver’s
license and be authorized
to drive university vehicles.
• Must be approved by FM
to operate a Fork Lift.
• Must have complete “hands on”
Fork Lift Training.
• Observe all traffic signs
and regulations.
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Facilities Management
Requirements for Fork Lift Drivers
• OSHA required each powered industrial
truck operator to receive the following
training:
– Initial training,
– Refresher training, and
– At least once every three years
• Note: FM will contact the outside contractor to
do the refresher training.
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Lifts are for Handling Material
• Never raise anyone with a lift truck
• Do not allow anyone to ride
on the side or forks.
• Never allow anyone to
walk under raised forks.
• Do not use the upright
for a ladder.
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Facilities Management
General Safety Rules
• Watch out for pedestrians
– They may not watch for you.
• Wear safety equipment when required.
• Do not block safety or
emergency equipment.
• No eating, drinking or
smoking on fork lift.
• Do not operate fork lift when under
influence of drugs or alcohol.
• No horseplay or stunt driving.
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Drive Safely
• Use well defined traffic routes
– Free from obstruction.
• Keep a clear view of the path
of travel, and always look in
the direction of travel.
• If the load blocks your
view, travel in reverse.
• Keep fork lift under control at all times.
• Travel at a speed that permits
stopping in a safe manner
– Starts and stops should be gradual.
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Drive Safely Cont.
• Keep both hands on the steering
wheel whenever possible.
• Keep arms and legs within the
cab or overhead guard supports at
all times that the fork lift is in motion.
• Never drive toward a person
standing in front of fixed object.
• Reduce speed and sound horn
at cross aisles and other locations
where vision is obstructed.
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Facilities Management
Drive Safely Cont.
• Remove loose objects from drive path
– Do not drive over or around them.
• Be alert at pedestrian crossing points.
• Unattended trucks must be
shut off with lowered load.
• Stop at intersections, blind corners or
entrances used by other traffic.
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Drive Safely Cont.
• Maintain a safe distance from the
edge of ramps or platforms while
on any elevated dock or platform.
• Be extra careful when
pedestrians are near.
• Keep a safe distance
between you and any
vehicle you may be following.
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Safety and Operational Checks
• Fork Lifts must be inspected and
serviced by a qualified technician at
least every 3 months.
• Drivers should inspect the following
each day:
– Steering
– Brakes
– Lights
– Check for leaks
Note: Keep your hands, feet and legs out of
the chains, upright, carriage or attachment.
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Facilities Management
Fork Lift Stability
• Forklift is based on the
principle of two weights
balanced on opposite
sides of a pivot, or
“Fulcrum Point”.
• The forward wheels
are the fulcrum point.
Fulcrum
Point
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Facilities Management
Fork Lift Stability Cont.
• The Center of Gravity of the fork lift is the
CG Load
single point about which the fork
lift is balanced in all directions.
• Any load the fork lift carries
also has its own CG.
• When the fork lift picks
up a load, the fork lift
and load have a new
combined CG.
• The stability of the fork lift is determined
by the location of its CG, or if it is
carrying a load, the combined CG.
Combined CG
CG Truck
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Facilities Management
Fork Lift Stability Cont.
Combined CG
C
A
CG Load
CG Truck
B
• In order for the forklift to be stable, the
CG must stay within the area of the
forklift represented by a triangle drawn
between the drive wheels and the pivot
of the steering axle. This triangle is
routinely called the “Stability Triangle”.
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Fork Lift Stability Cont.
Drive Axle
C
A
CG Load
B
Steering
Axle
CG – Truck Tip Over
• If the CG moves forward, in front of the
drive axle, the forklift will tip forward.
• If the CG moves outside of the line
represented by the lines drawn between
the drive wheels & the steer axle pivot,
the forklift will tip to the side.
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Facilities Management
Fork Lift Stability Cont.
• The CG, and therefore the stability,
of the loaded truck is affected
by the following factors:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Size.
Weight.
Shape.
Position of the load.
Height to which the load is elevated.
The amount of forward or backward tilt.
Tire pressure.
The dynamic forces created
when the truck is moving.
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Facilities Management
Fork Lift Operation
• Always travel with a load tilted
slightly back for added stability.
• Do not lift or lower the load
when the forklift is in motion.
• Keep the forks in the lowest position
from the floor when
UPGRADE
Load in front
vehicle is moving.
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Facilities Management
Fork Lift Operation Cont.
• Drive in reverse rather than looking around
the load if you are unable to see over it.
• Use extra caution when traveling longer
distance in reverse.
• When driving on a hill or incline, keep the
load up hill or up grade.
• To keep the load up grade
– When empty travel up in reverse
and down forward – with a
load travel up forward
and down in reverse.
• Ascend & descend
grades slowly.
UW-Eau Claire
DOWNGRADE
Load Trailing
Facilities Management
Picking Up a Load
• Make sure the load is within the
rated load capacity for the forklift.
• Adjust long or high loads
which may affect capacity.
– A long load will reduce the
capacity of the truck.
– Wide loads should be kept low.
• Center load.
• Stack and tie uneven or loose loads.
• Drive into the loading position and
insert the forks far enough to be sure
the pallet is completely on the forks.
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Picking Up a Load Cont.
• Drive under the load until it slightly
touches the carriage.
– Tilt the forks back to shift the weight of the
load back, making it more stable.
• If the load is unbalanced, keep the
heavier end closer to you.
– Tilt the mast back.
• Lift the load and tilt it back
a little more before traveling.
• Stop when the tips of the
forks are about a foot away
from the load.
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Picking Up a Load Cont.
• Level the forks and slowly
drive forward until the load is
resting against the backrest.
• Lift the load high enough to
clear whatever is under it.
• Carefully tilt the mast back
to stabilize the load.
• Clear the stacks by slowly backing
• Check behind and to both
sides before moving.
• Keep the forks low for travel.
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Putting a Load Down
• Square up and stop about a foot away.
• Level the forks and then
drive the rest of the way in.
• Lower the load.
• Tilt the forks slightly forward
to avoid hooking the load.
• Look over both shoulders
and back straight out until
the forks clear the pallet.
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Safe Unloading of Trailer
• Make sure brakes are set
and wheel chocks are in place
under the rear wheels.
• Use jack stands if appropriate.
• Inspect or install the dock pale
(secure in place and
check load capacity).
• Check flooring for breaks
and weaknesses before
driving into the trailer.
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Facilities Management
Safe Stacking of Loads
• Take precautions when loading
or pulling from a stack.
• Do not stack materials too high.
• Move towards the stack with the
load low and tilted backward.
• Slow down and stop at
the face of the stack.
• Make sure the area is
clear of personnel.
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Safe Stacking of Loads Cont.
• Stop about one foot away from the
loading area & lift the mast high
enough to clear the top of the stack.
• Reduce the backward tilt
to stabilize the load.
• Bring mast forward retaining only
sufficient back tilt to secure the load.
• Elevate the load to the
desired stacking height.
• When the load is clear of the top
of the stack, move slowly forward.
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Safe Stacking of Loads Cont.
• When the load is securely stacked,
lower forks until free of pallet.
• Check behind and withdraw
by reversing the forklift.
– A slight forward tilt may be
helpful at this position.
• When clear of the stack, lower
the forks to just above the ground
level, tilt the mast backward to the
usual traveling position.
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Safe Stacking of Loads Cont.
• DO NOT straighten the stack by
pushing against it with the forks
or with the end of the forklift.
• Slowly move forward until the load is
squarely over the top of the stack.
• Level the forks and lower the
mast until the load is no longer
supported by the forks.
• Look over both shoulders for
obstructions and back straight out
if the path is clear.
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Tips to Avoid “Tipping”
• Do not exceed the weight
capacity of the lift.
• Never turn on a grade.
• Avoid loose or slippery surfaces.
• Turning onto a soft shoulder
can tip a truck over
– Keep the steer wheels on the road.
• Driving an indoor forklift outdoors
on rough, uneven ground.
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Facilities Management
Tips to Avoid “Tipping” Cont.
• Turning too sharp with a raised
load can cause truck to tip
over even at slow speed.
• Carry loads low and tilted back.
Note: If tip over occurs:
– Stay with the truck
• Chance for survival is better.
– Stay in the seat
• Grip the wheel and brace your feet.
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Facilities Management
Propane Fuel Handling
• All valves, nozzle, and hoses should be
secure and free of leaks.
• The propane tank should be
inspected for cracks, broken weld
points, and other damage.
• If you smell propane,
Refuel
shut off the valve.
Safely
• Wear gloves & safety
glasses.
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Facilities Management
Propane Fuel Handling
• The valve on the fuel cylinder
must be closed when the PIT is
not in operation and parked overnight.
• The fuel cylinder must be secured in
the brackets when the PIT is in
operation.
• Change propane tanks in a wellventilated area free of open flames.
• No smoking.
UW-Eau Claire
Facilities Management
Summary
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ensure load stability to prevent tip over
Follow the rules of the road
Use extra caution with special situations
Inspect the forklift and report any problems
Use care when refueling/recharging
Failure to assess the risk and comply with
safe operating instructions will result in
incident that can cause personnel injury and
property damage.
UW-Eau Claire
Facilities Management
•Any Questions
??
Revision Dated: August 18th, 2014
UW-Eau Claire
Facilities Management

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