CHAPTER 8: THE MIDDLE AGES IN EUROPE “The Dark Ages were stark in every dimension. Famines and plague, culminating the Black Death and its recurring pandemics, repeatedly thinned the population… It says much about the Middle Ages that in the year 1500, after a thousand years of neglect, the roads built by the Romans were still the best on the continent… Among the lost arts was bricklaying; in all of Germany, England, Holland, and Scandinavia, virtually no stone buildings, except cathedrals, were raised for ten centuries… Surrounding them was the vast, menacing, and at places, impassable Hercynian Forest, infested by boars; by bears; by the hulking medieval wolves who lurk so fearsomely in fairy tales handed down from that time; by imaginary demons; and by very real outlaws, who flourished because they were seldom pursued.. Although homicides were twice as frequent as deaths by accident… only one of every hundred murderers was ever brought to justice… - Historian William Manchester INTRODUCTION In this chapter, you will learn about Europe after the fall of Rome. In the East, the Roman Empire continued as the Byzantine Empire. In the West, Europe experienced centuries of turmoil as different groups invaded and political authority was frequently challenged by outbreaks of violence. Eventually, a new political, social and economic order emerged, known as feudalism. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What were the main characteristics of the Byzantine Empire? How was Western Europe affected by the collapse of Rome? How did the system of feudalism restore order to Western Europe? How did religious beliefs shape life-styles in this period? KEY VOCABULARY Byzantine Empire Constantinople Eastern Orthodoxy Code of Justinian Middle Ages Charlemagne Feudalism Lords Knights Serfs Manor Manorialism Three-field System Roman Catholicism The Pope The Crusades Thomas Aquinas Magma Carta IMPORTANT IDEAS A. B. C. In the East, the Byzantine Empire emerged with its center at Constantinople. It was to last for almost 1,000 years. Emperor Justinian brought together Roman laws into a comprehensive legal code. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Western Europe descended into a period of chaos. Different tribes set up separate kingdoms. Waves of invaders kept Europe in turmoil. Cities fell into decay and much of the learning of the ancient world was lost. To protect themselves, Europeans developed the system of feudalism – a political, economic and social system. Under feudalism, the king gave land to his nobles in return for their service. Nobles provided the king with knights. Serfs worked on self-sufficient manors for their noble lords. IMPORTANT IDEAS D. E. During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church preserved learning and emerged as the most powerful institution in Western Europe. The Pope was the head of the Catholic Church. St. Augustine emphasized the role of faith, while St. Thomas Aquinas believed that Christian teachings were compatible with the exercise of reason. Aquinas also believed in natural law. Christians and Muslims fought for control of the Holy Land during the Crusades. The Crusades introduced Europeans to new goods and ideas from the Middle East. THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE (330-1453) In 330 A.D., Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium, a Greek city in the eastern part of the empire. He renamed this city Constantinople. The city was located along land routes that connected Europe and Asia. The city was also strategically located on the Bosporus, a water-way connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. Constantinople was surrounded on three sides by water, and the city had thick walls, making it almost impossible to attack. A BYZANTINE CULTURE EMERGES While the western half of the Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century, the eastern half of the empire survived for another thousand years. The Byzantines saw themselves as simply continuing the Roman Empire. A BYZANTINE CULTURE EMERGES Like the emperors of Rome, the Byzantine emperors continued to be all-powerful. They maintained an imperial system of government over a diverse population. Because Constantinople was in the East, most of its merchants and other residents spoke Greek. At first, the official language of government remained Latin, but it also eventually was replaced by Greek. A BYZANTINE CULTURE EMERGES The Byzantines were also united by their own form of Christianity – Eastern Orthodoxy – which was separate from the Catholic Church. Orthodox Christians did not recognize the Pope as the head of their church. Instead, they had their own Patriarch who led the church. The priests may marry and services were conducted in Greek or local languages. Orthodox Christians decorated their churches with icons – images of Jesus and the saints. There were also other differences, such as views on the Trinity and the shape of the cross they displayed in their churches. WITH YOUR SHOULDER PARTNER Why did the Byzantine Empire survive as the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe? A BYZANTINE CULTURE EMERGES There were several reasons why the Byzantine Empire survived as one of the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in Europe: A BYZANTINE CULTURE EMERGES The Byzantines developed a vibrant culture. Emperor Justinian built the Church of Hagia Sophia with its giant dome and tall spires along with other churches throughout the Empire. The Church of Hagia Sophia showed connection between church and State. Missionary saints Cyril and Methodius Christianize Slavs to the North of the empire and develop the Cyrillic language to promote religion to the Slavs. CONTRAST Contrast the Byzantine church and State philosophy with the Modern day United States church and state philosophy. A BYZANTINE CULTURE EMERGES Schools taught ancient Greek texts. Byzantine artists used precious materials – gold, silver, and ivory – to display classical images. They were especially known for their colorful icons and mosaics (pictures made with pieces of cut stone and glass). A BYZANTINE CULTURE EMERGES The size of the Byzantine Empire varied over time. In its early centuries, it ruled over the Balkan Peninsula, the Middle East and parts of Italy. Under Justinian (527565), it re-conquered much of the old Roman Empire. A BYZANTINE CULTURE EMERGES One of the greatest achievements of the Byzantine Empire was the Code of Justinian. Emperor Justinian collected all of the existing Roman laws and organized them into a single code. The code listed all the laws and opinions on each subject. Justinian’s Code also had special laws relating to religion. It required that all persons in the empire belong to the Eastern Orthodox Christian faith. THE DECLINE OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE The late Byzantine Empire continuously battled the Slavs and Avars to the north, the Persian Empire to the east and the spread of Islam in the south. In the 600s, Muslim Arabs took most of the empire’s territory in the Middle East. THE DECLINE OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE The empire declined further in the 11th century. The Seljuk Turks, originally from Central Asia, defeated the Byzantine army in 1071 and took possession of most of Asia Minor. Crusaders attacked the city in 1204. City-states in Italy began to compete with Constantinople for Mediterranean trade. Yet the Byzantines still controlled the Balkan Peninsula and survived for another 400 years. Their empire eventually unraveled from continuous attacks on all sides. By the 1440s, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to a small area just around the city of Constantinople itself. In 1453, Constantinople was finally conquered by the Ottoman Turks. INFLUENCE ON RUSSIA One place that was greatly influenced by Byzantium was Russia. Russia emerged as a state in the 9th century, in the forest lands between the Baltic and Black Seas. Viking raiders organized Slavs in the region into a kingdom centered in Kiev. Other Russian cities, such as Moscow and Novgorod, developed to the north. Early Russian cities carried on a brisk trade with the Byzantine Empire. INFLUENCE ON RUSSIA Contact with the Byzantines affected Russia in many ways. Byzantine culture – especially Orthodox Christianity, the Cyrillic alphabet, and Byzantine crafts and products – was introduced into Russian society. The Byzantines also converted other Slavic peoples and the Bulgars to Christianity, leaving a permanent legacy in Eastern Europe. 2. WESTERN EUROPE IN TURMOIL While the Byzantine Empire survived as a center of classical culture, important changes were taking place in Western Europe. Historians sometimes refer to this period of history, from the fall of Rome in 476 A.D. to the 1400s, as the “Middle Ages” or medieval period – the period between ancient and modern times. Map of the approximate political boundaries of Europe in 450 THE BARBARIAN INVASIONS Beyond Rome’s frontiers lived Germanic tribes like the Goths, Vandals, Lombards, Burgundians, and Franks. The Romans considered these peoples to be uncivilized “barbarians.” The Romans considered anyone to be a barbarian who came from a foreign, nonRoman culture. THE BARBARIAN INVASIONS In the 4th century, a war-like tribe known as the Huns moved from Central Asia to Europe. As the Huns moved into Europe, they forced the Germanic tribes to move westward. These Germanic tribes in turn pushed forward into the Roman Empire. THE BARBARIAN INVASIONS The Visigoths were permitted by the Romans to enter the empire to escape the Huns. Later, the Visigoths turned against the Romans. The Visigoths defeated the Roman army and sacked the city of Rome in 410 A.D. They were assisted in defeating the Romans by the many Germanic slaves inside the city. THE BARBARIAN INVASIONS After a period of invasions, Germanic tribes then established their own kingdoms in many parts of the former Roman Empire. Then Angles and Saxons invaded England; the Visigoths moved westward to Spain; the Lombards occupied northern Italy, and the Franks took Gaul (present-day France). THE BARBARIAN INVASIONS The constant warfare of this period disrupted trade across Europe. Travel became unsafe because of violence. Bridges and roads fell into disrepair. Cities and towns were abandoned. Bandits roamed freely. Life became increasingly rural and unsafe. Wealthy families moved out of towns to the safety of fortified homes in the countryside. People gave up their interest in learning. Shortages of food and goods grew. Churches and monasteries became the only places where people could read and write. THE RISE OF THE FRANKS The Franks established the largest of the new Germanic Kingdoms in what is now France. Charles Martel, a powerful nobleman, helped unite the Franks. In 732, at the Battle of Tours, Martel stopped the advance of Islam from Spain into France. THE RISE OF THE FRANKS In 751, Martel’s son Pepin seized power and became King of the Franks. With the support of the Pope, Pepin marched across the Alps and took control of Northern Italy. Frankish kings created a powerful army by granting lands to their nobles in exchange for service in the king’s army with their knights. THE REIGN OF CHARLEMAGNE Pepin’s son, Charlemagne, became king in 768. Charlemagne expanded the practice of giving land to his nobles in exchange for their promises of loyalty and service. At the same time, his nobles gave land to their knights in exchange for similar promises. Peasants gave up their rights to their local lords for better security. They offered services “in kind,” providing firewood, livestock, and crops. THE REIGN OF CHARLEMAGNE Charlemagne enlarged his kingdom to include France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, and Northern Italy. Charlemagne established a new capital at Aachen, which he turned into a center of learning. He constructed a beautiful palace in imitation of the imperial court of Rome. He used riches from his conquests to attract scholars to his palace school for children of the nobility. THE REIGN OF CHARLEMAGNE At the request of the Pope, Charlemagne was crowned “Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire” in 800. This step announced to the world that Western Europe was now independent from the Byzantine emperor. The coronation of Charlemagne also signified the new political and religious unity of Western Europe under the concept of Christendom. After Charlemagne’s death, his empire was divided among his sons. EUROPE FACES NEW THREATS The division of Charlemagne’s empire occurred just as Europeans were facing new threats. From the east, Slavs and Magyars invaded the lands of Germany, France, and Italy. From North Africa, Muslims attacked Southern Italy. The greatest threat came from the Vikings – fierce warriors and sailors from Scandinavia in Northern Europe. They sailed south in search of trade, loot, and land. EUROPE FACES NEW THREATS Between 800 and 1000, the Vikings launched repeated assaults on the coasts of Western Europe, often committing brutal atrocities. Although spreading fear and destruction, the Vikings also created new trade routes. Their longboats were easy to maneuver and could sail in heavy seas or close to the land. In many places, they created new settlements – such as the Danelaw in Northern England, Normandy in France, and their own communities on the island of Sicily. 3. FEUDAL SOCIETY To protect themselves from violence and to provide for basic economic needs, people throughout Western Europe adopted the system introduced by the Franks. Kings offered nobles a grant of land, known as a fued or fief, in exchange for loyalty and service. The nobleman, known as the vassal, gave homage (allegiance) to the king. This new order, known as feudalism, helped people survive the breakdown of central government and order. Feudalism in Europe was characterized by a number of key social, political, and economic relationships. SOCIAL A major characteristic of feudal society was the development of a strict class structure based on the control of land and military power. People born as serfs, knights, or lords could not change their social position. Local lords (nobles) were given land by their rulers in exchange for military service. These lords had their own small armies of knights – armed warriors on horseback. POLITICAL Under the feudal system, the leading nobles controlled political life. They built large castles for their own protection, often rivaling those of the king in size. They surrounded themselves with armed knights. The king relied on his nobles for his own army, and the nobles often fought among themselves or challenged the king’s authority. Civil wars were frequent, and powerful nobles often grabbed land for themselves. ECONOMIC During feudalism, most people lived on manors. A manor consisted of the lord’s house and the peasants living in the surrounding territory. This aspect of the feudal system is also sometimes known as manorialism. Each manor produced its own food, clothing, and shelter. Manors varied in size, depending on their lord’s wealth. Every noble had at least one manor, but some powerful or wealthy nobles had many manors. For example, in England there were more than 9,000 manors. ECONOMIC Peasant farmers known as serfs gave their lord part of their harvest in return for the use of land and other services. The lord protected the serfs from attacks by outsiders. Each lord had almost complete power over the serfs who lived on his manor. The lord could pass laws, require labor, and act as a judge. Serfs were bound to the land and had no voice in most matters. ECONOMIC Farming in the Middle Ages. Farmers lacked specific knowledge of how to enrich the soil or rotate crops. Each year, only two-thirds of the land was usually cultivated, letting the other third remain fallow (uncultivated), so that it could recover its fertility. This was known as the threefield system. ECONOMIC Farming in the Middle Ages. One field was devoted to winter crops, a second to summer crops, and a third lay fallow each year. Farm animals were often small. Bad weather and a poor harvest could lead to famine and death. For example, during the Great Famine of 1315 to 1322, large numbers of people across Europe died. ECONOMIC Peasant Life-Styles. Peasant farmers produced the food used by medieval society. Most worked long hours to grow enough food to survive each year. Although most peasants were farmers, some were millers, blacksmiths, and tavern owners. Life revolved around the agrarian calendar. Most of the time was spent working the land. Church feasts marked sowing and reaping days. ECONOMIC Peasants lived in small towns or nearby farms on their lord’s manor. A typical peasant home was a two-room cottage with walls of dried mud, plastered branches, and straw. The cottage often had a roof of thatch. Rooms had earthen floors and a few furnishings, such as a stool, table, and a chest to hold clothes. Stacks of straw served as beds for the entire family. Water was drawn from a nearby well or stream. Ventilation was poor. Pigs and other farm animals often lived inside the house. WOMEN IN THE MIDDLE AGES During the Middle Ages, the role of women was determined by the attitudes of the Catholic Church and the nobility. Women were supposed to be obedient to men. Women’s inferior status was often blamed on the Biblical story of Eve’s disobedience in the Garden of Eden. WOMEN IN THE MIDDLE AGES Medieval people lived in extended families. Nobles maintained large households; related peasants lived close to one another. Women of all social classes gave birth to a large number of children, but many children died in infancy. WOMEN IN THE MIDDLE AGES Women’s life-styles varied according to their social status. Noble women spent most of their time in prayer and in domestic chores such as sewing and embroidery. Among the nobility, only a handful of women received an education. Among the peasants, a close partnership often existed between a husband and wife. Both worked side-byside in the fields. Women ran the home and looked after the livestock. THE AGE OF FAITH During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church remained the single most powerful organization in Western Europe. There were many reasons for this: THE AGE OF FAITH The head of the Catholic Church was the Pope in Rome. The Pope was regarded as the successor of St. Peter, leader of the apostles after the death of Jesus. Catholics believed the Pope had inherited the role of Peter in running the Church. The Pope governed the Church with the help of cardinals, bishops and other church officials. The Church controlled enormous amounts of land throughout Europe. The Church also possessed monasteries, abbeys, and convents, where monks and nuns spent their lives devoted to prayer. TWO CHRISTIAN THINKERS Two Christian thinkers who had a great influence on the Middle Ages were St. Augustine and Thomas Aquinas. St. Augustine (354-430) lived at the time of the fall of Rome. In The City of God, Augustine asks why God is letting barbarians destroy the Christian civilization of Rome. He concludes that no earthly city, like Rome, can last forever. Only the “City of God” in Heaven is eternal. Because our understanding is limited, he said we must put our faith in God, who will reward us in the afterlife. TWO CHRISTIAN THINKERS St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) lived 800 years after St. Augustine. His most famous book, Summa Theologica, provided a summary of Christian beliefs. Aquinas wrote as a time when Muslim and Jewish scholars had just discovered lost works by Aristotle. Some Christian scholars felt such pre-Christian thinkers had no value. Aquinas showed how these works by Aristotle were compatible with Christian teachings. Aquinas said that God had given man the power of reason to help him explain and interpret the world. Therefore, we should trust as well as faith. TWO CHRISTIAN THINKERS Aquinas also believed in the existence of “natural law” – universal laws independent of any laws passed by government. These laws are based on reason. Our reason tells us what we must do in order to “do good and to avoid evil.” Aquinas believed that we can use our understanding of natural law to evaluate the laws of governments. If a human law conflicts with natural law, it is not a law and we do not have to obey it. “Laws of this kind are acts of violence rather than laws.” Aquinas believed that citizens even have the right to remove rulers who continually enact unjust laws. Although Aquinas thought a ruler’s power came from God, he felt this power came from God through the people. THE CRUSADES The power and influence of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages can be seen in its ability to carry out a “holy war” against Muslims. For hundreds of years, Christian pilgrims had regularly visited Jerusalem, where the sacred events depicted in the Bible were believed to have taken place. However, in the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks took control of the “Holy Land” and drove out Christian pilgrims. THE CALL TO FREE THE HOLY LAND In 1095, Pope Urban II received a plea from the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople for help against the threat of a Muslim invasion. Shocked and angered at the possibility of Constantinople’s falling to the Muslims, Urban II called on all Christians in Europe to unite and fight a holy Crusade – a war to recapture the Holy Land from its Muslim rulers. The Church promised salvation to all who participated. THE CALL TO FREE THE HOLY LAND The word “Crusade” meant “war of the cross.” Crusaders fought under the banner of a red cross against a white background. The Crusades brought rulers and nobles from different parts of Europe together in a common cause. Pilgrims, wives, and children of many knights accompanied the Crusader army on its long journey from different parts of Europe to Constantinople and then southward to the Holy Land. Many of the participants died of hunger or disease along the way. Several Crusades were fought over the next two centuries. THE CALL TO FREE THE HOLY LAND Although the Crusades never achieved more than a temporary control of Jerusalem, the Crusades had many important effects: THE LATER MIDDLE AGES During the later Middle Ages, Europe underwent gradual changes. Trade first revived when merchants displayed their goods at fairs, often inside a castle’s walls. Trade slowly increased and cities along trade routes grew. The Crusades increased interest in luxury goods from the East. A new merchant class arose in the towns. Merchants and craftsmen organized into powerful associations known as guilds. New inventions, like better watermills, windmills and mechanical clocks, improved life. Cities like Bologna and Paris founded the first universities. THE LATER MIDDLE AGES Throughout the Middle Ages, important towns had often competed to build the largest church or cathedral. The later Middle Ages saw the introduction of a new art style. The first Gothic church was built in France in 1231. Its pointed arches, high spires, and beautiful stained glass windows were designed to give worshippers the feeling that they were being transported to another world. ENGLISH POLITICAL TRADITIONS In the Middle Ages, England developed traditions of liberty and limited self-government that were unique in Europe. ENGLISH POLITICAL TRADITIONS Magna Carta. In 1215, the English nobles (known as barons) rebelled against the taxes and forced loans being collected by King John. They were helped by the Church and towns. John was forced to sign an agreement promising not to take away any free man’s property or to imprison any free man without following procedures established by the law of the land. The Magna Carta guaranteed all free men the right to a trial by jury, and further forced the king to obtain the consent of a council of nobles for most new taxes. ENGLISH POLITICAL TRADITIONS Parliament. Later English Kings summoned nobles and representatives of the towns to grant them new taxes. This led to the origins of Parliament.