Meaning of Educational Psychology. Aspects of Educational Psychology Importance of Educational Psychology for the Teacher PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION Educational psychology is derived from two major concepts education and psychology. Psychology provides explanation of the general idea about behavior. Education’s major concern is practice. These practices are based on the general idea or laws formulated by psychology. Educational psychology focuses on teaching and learning. The focus is on assessment and other aspects related to teaching and learning. Educational psychology facilitates the work of the teacher by solving teaching problems, and guides the teacher on what to do and how to do. Educational Psychology is the scientific discipline that addresses the questions “Why do some students learn more than others?” and “What can be done to improve that learning?” WHERE IS EP APPLIED? Educational Psychology is applied in the following major areas: Curriculum plan and design Educational and school leadership Educational measurement and evaluation Classroom management. Educational research. Classroom management Teaching methods, materials in designing and using. School guidance and counseling Planning lessons ( EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY… is a branch of psychology that specializes in understanding teaching and learning in educational settings. ASPECTS OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Therefore, As educational psychology focuses on teaching and learning it logically means that it includes the learner, the learning process, the teacher and the teaching process. THE LEARNER The learner is the target in teaching and learning process. Therefore, he must be understood by the teacher or by the educator to device effective strategies of teaching to involve the learner into effective learning process. Characteristics of a learner to be understood by the teacher are: Behavior of the learner related to age. This is studied in child development The learner's personality Physical characteristics (strong, weak, disability) Mental ability and mental health. Emotional characteristics Social characteristics affecting learning (family, peer relations etc.) Moral characteristics. THE LEARNING PROCESS The teacher should understand how the learner learns. This includes all the activities included in and experiences encouraged in school. Children learn through observation, experimentation, manipulation of objects, acting, listening, asking, imitating etc. These mode of learning are sustained by teachers or adult’s motivation, encouragement and challenges. (More about this on learning approaches) THE TEACHING PROCESS Teaching is the process of facilitating students’ learning by putting the learner into the most conducive environment for learning, guiding, supporting, instructing, giving good treatment , understand and help students to solve problems, planning lesson plans, encouraging, leading, observing etc. It is generally accepted that by understanding the learner and the learning process, the teacher will be able to organize effective teaching. Psychology helps the teacher to understand his/her roles and responsibilities, develop decision making, abilities, ability to choose teaching strategies and materials. THE TEACHER Is the one who facilitates learning. Helps others to gain experience, acquire knowledge and skills Measure students’ learning. Correcting students’ learning. Psychology will help the teacher to understand : o His/her attitude about learning, o Children o Professional responsibilities o How to behave. o How to interact with students. o How to improve his/her knowledge and understanding in teaching subjects and children as well.. REFLECTION & OBSERVATION Reflection: What were the characteristics of the most effective teachers in your educational experience? EFFECTIVE TEACHING PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS Teachers Must Exhibit: • Subject matter competence • Classroom management skills that create an optimal learning environment • Instructional planning skills • Goal-setting 14 EFFECTIVE TEACHING PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS Teachers Must Exhibit: • Ability to encourage student motivation: provide real-world learning opportunities that allow students to think creatively and deeply about projects • Ability to model good communication skill • Sensitivity in multicultural environments • Technological skills to integrate computers appropriately in the classroom 15 EFFECTIVE TEACHING COMMITMENT AND MOTIVATION Effective Teachers: Have a good attitude Care about students Invest time and effort Bring a positive attitude and enthusiasm to the classroom EFFECTIVE TEACHING PROFESSIONAL GROWTH Effective Teachers: Developing a positive identity Seek advice from competent, experienced teachers Never stop learning Build up good resources and supports Characteristics of Best Teachers Source; (Michelle;2009) Characteristics of Worst Teachers Source; IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY FOR THE TEACHERS The knowledge of educational psychology helps teachers in various ways. It improves the teacher’s ability in teaching and managing students. Some of the uses of educational psychology are as follows: 1. It enables the teacher to understand children’s behavior and characteristics, the cause and effect of their behavior, their attitudes, mental ability, their problems, that are related to their age and environment they live, their learning styles and how they grow and develop. This helps the teacher to understand ways of assisting them to solve their personal and learning problems and planning for their learning, in an effective way IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY FOR THE TEACHERS 2. Enabling the teacher to understand how environment, rearing style, values and culture of children influence their behavior, perception and mental ability. Understanding this will enable the teacher to create a conducive environment for children’s effective learning. 3. Educational psychology helps the teacher gain techniques and strategies for studying his students. Human behavior is difficult to predict even though various scientific theories attempt to explain it. With the knowledge of educational psychology the teacher will be able to gain more knowledge about his/her students for effective planning of their learning. IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY FOR THE TEACHERS The knowledge of educational psychology improves teacher’s ability to choose/design the most appropriate teaching strategies. When children learn their learning styles and attitudes towards learning appear. So, educational psychology helps the teacher to analyze the styles and attitudes and use them to design effective learning for children. 5. Educational psychology helps to improve teacher’s ability to choose and construct appropriate measure of student’s learning according to knowledge level, mental ability, learning environment, etc. 4. IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY FOR THE TEACHERS 6. Educational psychology helps the teacher to understand children’s individual difference, behavior, physical and physiological, mental and personality differences. Children’s individual differences appear on how they learn , how they adapt to the environment, how they build social relationship and how they can be motivated.