Diversity of Benthic Animals

Report
Diversity of Benthic Animals
Categories of Benthic Animals
• >1 mm macrobenthos
• <.1 mm microbenthos
• Between .1 and 1 mm meiobenthos
Major Taxonomic Groups of Benthos
• Porifera
• Coelenterata
– Hydrozoa
• Platyhelminthes
– Turbellaria
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•
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Gastrotricha
Rotifera
Nematoda
Bryozoa
• Annelida
– Oligochaeta
– Hirundinella
• Mollusca
– Gastropoda
– Pelecypoda
• Arthropoda
– Crustacea
– Insecta
Major Functional Groups of Benthos
Functional Feeding Groups
• Predators (prd)
• Omnivores
• Collectors
– Filtering Collectors (c-f)
– Gathering Collectors (c-g)
• Scrapers (scr)
• Shredders (shr)
• Piercers
Habitat & Behavior
• Clinger
• Climber
• Sprawler
• Burrower
• Swimmer
Hilsenhoff Biotic Index
Biotic Index
Water Quality
Degree of Organic Pollution
0.00-3.50
Excellent
No apparent organic pollution
3.51-4.50
Very good
Possible slight organic pollution
4.51-5.50
Good
5.51-6.50
Fair
6.51-7.50
Fairly poor
7.51-8.50
Poor
8.51-10.00
Very poor
Some organic pollution
Fairly significant organic pollution
Significant organic pollution
Very significant organic pollution
Severe organic pollution
1929-2011
Porifera
• Spongilla (5)
Coelenterata
• Hydrozoa
– Hydra (5)
– Craspedacusta
Platyhelminthes
• Turbellaria
– Dugesia (6)
Gastrotricha
Rotifera
• Bdelloid rotifers
Bryozoa
• Plumatella
• Pectinatella
• statoblast
Annelida
• Oligochaeta (e.g. Tubifex; 10)
Annelida
• Hirundinella
– Hirudo (6)
– Glossiphonia (8)
Mollusca, scr
• Gastropoda
– Physa (8)
– Helisoma (6)
– Pleurocera (6)
Mollusca, c-f
• Pelecypoda (Bivalvia)
– Corbicula (6)
– Dreissena (8)
– Sphaerium (6)
Mollusca, c-f
• Pelecypoda (Bivalvia)
– Elliptio (8)
– Lampsilis (6)
Aquatic Arachnid Arthropods, prd
• Water Mites (e.g. Arrenurus, 6)
• Fishing Spiders (e.g. Dolomedes)
Benthic Crustacean Arthropods
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•
•
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Copepoda
Ostracoda
Isopoda
Amphipoda
Decapoda
Benthic Copepods
• Harpacticoida (8)
Ostracoda, c-g
• Seed Shrimp (e.g. Cypria, 8)
Isopoda, c-g
• Aquatic sow bugs (e.g. Asellus, 8)
Amphipoda, c-g
• Side swimmers or scuds
– Hyalella (8)
– Gammarus (4-6)
Decapoda, c-g
• Crawfish (e.g. Orconectes)
(6)
– (Procambarus)
• Glass Shrimp (e.g. Natania)
Orders of Aquatic Insects and
Collembola
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•
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Collembola -spring tails
Plecoptera –stoneflies
Ephemeroptera –mayflies
Odonota –dragonflies and damselflies
Hemiptera –true bugs
Megaloptera – dobsonflies (hellgrammites)
Neuroptera –spongillaflies
Coleoptera –beetles
Trichoptera –caddisflies
Diptera –flies, mosquitoes, and midges
Collembola (5-10), c-g
Plecoptera
• Winter and Spring Stoneflies
– Broadbacks (e.g. Taeniopteryx, 2) shr
– Slender Winter Stoneflies (e.g. Capnia, 1-3) shr)
Plecoptera
• Summer Stoneflies
– Giant Stoneflies
• Pteronarcys (0) shr
– Common Stoneflies
• Perla (0-4) prd
Ephemeroptera
• Suborder Schistonota
– Minnow-Like Mayflies
• Ameletus (0)
c-g
• Isonychia (2)
c-f
• Baetis (4-6)
c-g
Ephemeroptera
• Suborder Schistonota
– Flatheaded Mayflies
• Epeorus (0) scr
Ephemeroptera
• Suborder Schistonota
– Pronggills
• Leptophlebia (4)
c-g
– Burrowers
• Ephemera (2)
c-g
Ephemeroptera
• Suborder Pannota
– Crawlers
• Ephemerella (0-1) c-g
– Squaregills
• Caenis (6-7) c-g
– Shellbacks
• Baetisca (3-4) c-g
Odonata
• Zygoptera (Damselflies)
– Broadwinged damselfly
• Calopteryx (6) prd
– Spreadwinged damselfly
• Lestes (6) prd
Odonata
• Aeshnoid Dragonflies
– Graybacks, Clubtails, & Darners
• Aeshna (3-5) prd
Odonata
• Biddies or Spiketails
– Cordulegaster (3) prd
Odonata
• Skimmers
– Epitheca (2-5)
prd
– Sympetrum prd
(2 or 9 family)
Hemiptera, prd
• Backswimmers (Notonectids)
– Buenoa
– Notonecta
Hemiptera, prd
• Water Scorpions (e.g. Nepa)
• Giant Water Bugs (e.g. Lethocerus)
Hemiptera, prd
• Water Boatman (Corixids – e.g. Sigara, 3-5)
• Water Striders (e.g. Gerris)
Megaloptera, prd
• Alderflies (e.g. Sialis, 4)
• Dobsonflies (e.g. Corydalus, 4)
Neuroptera, prd
• Spongillaflies (e.g. Climacea)
– (5)
Coleoptera
• Crawling Water Beetles (e.g. Haliplus, 5) shr
• Predaceous Diving Beetles (e.g. Dytiscus, 5) prd
Coleoptera
• Whirligig Beetles (e.g. Gyrinus, 4) prd
• Water Scavenger Beetles (e.g. Berosus, 4) c-g
Coleoptera
• Water Pennies (e.g. Psephenus, 4) scr
• Riffle Beetles (e.g. Stenelmis, 5) scr
Trichoptera
• Net Spinning Caddisflies
– Fingernail netspinners (e.g. Chimarra 2-4) c-f
– Nettube Caddis (e.g. Psychomyia, 2) c-g
Trichoptera
• Net Spinning Caddisflies
– Trumpetnet Caddis (e.g. Polycentropus, 6) prd
– Common Netspinners (e.g. Hydropsyche, 0-6) c-f
Trichoptera
• Free-living Caddisflies
– Rhyacophila (0-1) prd
– Hydroptila (6) scr
Trichoptera
• Tubecase Makers
– Humpless Case Makers (e.g. Brachycentrus, 0-1) c-f
– Northern Case Makers (e.g. Limnephilus, 3) shr
Trichoptera
• Tubecase Makers
– Lepidostomid Case Makers (e.g. Lepidostoma, 1) shr
– Strongcase Makers (e.g. Psilotreta, 0) scr
Trichoptera
• Tubecase Makers
– Snailcase Makers (e.g. Helicopsyche, 3) scr
– Longhorned Case Makers (e.g. Nectopsyche, 3) shr
Diptera
• Crane Flies (e.g. Tipula, 6) shr
• Phantom Crane Flies (e.g. Bittacomorpha, 9) c-g
Diptera
• Phantom Midges (e.g. Chaeoborus, 8) prd
• Mosquitoes c-f
– Anopheles (8)
– Aedes (8)
– Culex (8)
Diptera
• Biting Midges (Culicoides, 10) prd
• Midges
– Chironomus (9-10) c-g
– Tanytarsus (6) c-f
Diptera
• Black Flies (e.g. Simulium, 4-7) c-f
• Horse and Deer Flies (Tabanus, 5) prd
Diptera
• Rattailed Maggots (Eristalis, 10) c-g
• Shore Flies or Brine Flies (Ephydra, 6) shr

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