Tribal and Cultural Engagement

Report
Arctic Operations
Tribal & Cultural Engagement
Sudie Hargis
Version AS-13 v-3
8/1/13
D17 Tribal Liaison
1
CG Arctic Mission
Why do we conduct missions in the arctic?
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Related Missions
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Engagement & Outreach
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Environmental Protection
Maritime Commerce
Search & Rescue
Law Enforcement
National Security
Research/National Policy Issues
Expansion of All Missions
What do they mean?
A Short Historical Perspective…
2
Major Alaska Native Ethnic Groups
 Eleven Distinct Cultures
• Inupiaq/St Lawrence Yupik
• Yup’ik/Cup’ik
• Unangax (Aleut)/Alutiiq
• Athabascan
• Eyak/Tlingit/Haida/Tsimshian
 Over 22 Indigenous Dialects
 Differences in Continental/Ethnic Origins
 Differences in Regions/Subsistence Methods
 229 Federally Recognized Tribes (1934 Indian Reorganization Act)
3
The Coast Guard Mission in Alaska:
A Legacy and Part of Alaskan History
Corwin
and Bear
Humanitarian Aid:
Reindeer imported from Siberia to
Alaska 1892 (Capt Mike Healy):
Herds grew to 500K by 1941 -stable food supply
**Impact of seal & whale hunting
Ice Rescue:
1897-1898: Overland Relief
Expedition -- Eight whaling ships
caught in arctic ice:
382 reindeer with sled dogs 1500+
miles through blizzards to Pt.
Barrow (3½ months)
Federal Presence in Alaska:
Revenue Cutter Service was “Judge,
Doctor, Policeman”
Note our history/reputation is mixed!
4
Alaska Territorial Guard
“Eskimo Scouts”
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Organized WWII in response to Hawaii/Japan
Component of US Army 1942-1947
Missions:
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Detected Japanese Incursions
Placed & Maintained Survival Caches
Safeguarded Platinum
Secured Lend-Lease US/USSR air route
US sent over $11 Billion in supplies to Russia
Supplies by air, boat, dog team
107 Communities/20,000 Personnel (Ages 12-80)
Aleut, Athabascan, Inupiaq, Haida, Tlingit,
Tsimshian, & Yupik
Key to integration of US military
Recognized in 2000 as U.S. Military Veterans
5
Alaska “The Great Land”
Resource Extraction
= Driver for CG/Federal Presence
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Alaska Purchase: 1867
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U.S. Laws not extended to
Alaska purchase.
American Indian Law not
applied to Alaska Natives
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Alaska: Military District
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Gold Discovery: 1880
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Alaska Seafood: 1885
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$$$ Trillions in minerals,
oil, and gas
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USRC Rush,
Sitka, AK
2011: Alaska = 209 Million
barrels (10% of total U.S.)
6
Federal Indian Policy/Philosophy
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Treaty Making Era
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1778-1871
>20 Treaties = Recognition of Sovereignty
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The Removal Era
 The Reservation Era
 Allotments – Assimilation
1830-1850
1850-1871
1887-1934
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1924
1934
1953-1968
1968-Present
2000-Present
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U.S. Citizenship
Indian Reorganization Act
The Termination Era
The Self-Determination Era
Mandate for Federal G-2-G
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“Domestic Dependent Nations”
7
Key Alaska Native Legislation
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1906: Alaska Native Allotment Act
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1924: American Citizenship
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American Indians and Alaska Natives
1934: Indian Reorganization Act (IRA)
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Authorizes Land Parcels for Alaska
Natives up to 160 acres/person
Recognizes aboriginal land rights for
American Indians and Alaska Natives.
Establishes Federally recognized tribes
1935: Jurisdictional Act
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Allows Indians and Alaska Natives to file
court claims for aboriginal land.
Tlingit & Haida Tribes claimed all of
Southeast Alaska
8
Alaska 1959-70
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Supreme Court Upholds 1935
Tlingit Land Claim
State Public land selections
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Some on Native lands
Result: Court-ordered Land Freeze
Black Gold! 1969
All Create Strong Need for
Resolution of Issue
9
Resolution:
Alaska Native Claims
Settlement Act
(ANCSA) 1971
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44 Million Acres/$963 Million Settlement
Driven by Alaska Federation of Natives
Extinguishes Native Land and Subsistence Claims
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(except Metlakatla, 1888)
13 Regional Corporations
12 Regional Non-Profit Associations for social services
10
200+ Village Corporations
Native Governance & Consultation:
Tribal Consultation is a Mandate -- Executive Order 13175 (2000)
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Recognize Tribal Sovereignty
Mandate for federal agency
consultation on matters that
may impactTribal rights,
resources, or interests
229 Federally Recognized
Tribes in Alaska
President/Chief Have Official
Government Status
D17 Engagement/Consultation
11
Consultation and Tribal Impacts :
What Might Be Triggers?
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Air Ops
Vessel Ops
Shore/Cleanup Ops
Wildlife Disturbance
Sacred Sites
Restaurants & Driving
Village Presence
Phone Conversations
12
U.S. Coast Guard
Consultation and Engagement
With Tribes and Alaska Native Organizations
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In Support of CG Missions Statewide
Ongoing Meetings/briefings:
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Listen/Engage/Respond
Cross-Cultural training for all CG
personnel deployed to Arctic
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Tribes
Alaska Native Organizations
Local Governments
Developing Training for all CG personnel in
Alaska
Rear Admiral Ostebo
(CGD17 Commander) &
Vice Admiral Zukunft
Continuing to focus on tribal
(Pacific Area Commander)
engagement & collaboration statewide
at Alaska Eskimo Whaling
Working to identify gaps in
Commission Meeting in Pt Hope
connections with tribes
13
D17 Tribal Engagement & Consultation
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Actively Engage
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Visit Tribal Council office when CG
Ops/TAD to a village
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CG Operations
Vessel/Facility Inspections
Spill Response & Planning
Aids to Navigation
Auxiliary Ops
Notify D17 Tribal Liaison of Tribal
interactions
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Email/Opsum
POC Info/Date
Concerns/Issues
14
Complexity of Consultation/Engagement
Example: Point Hope, Alaska
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Native Village of Point Hope (IRA Tribe)
 Governs; does not hold land
 Inupiat Community of Arctic Slope (ICAS) (IRA Tribe)
 Tikigaq Corporation (ANCSA Village Corp)
 Holds surface land rights
 Arctic Slope Reg. Corp. (ANCSA Regional Corp)
 Holds subsurface land rights (gravel, oil, gold, coal)
 North Slope Borough (State/Municipal: Barrow)
 Provides services to Point Hope residents
 City of Point Hope (2nd class city/state chartered)
 Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission: 1977 (10 Villages)
 Alaska Walrus Commission: 1978 (19 Villages: Nome)
15
Arctic Operations
(Significant CG focus area in 2013)
Ops Summary:
H-60 Jayhawk
Two
Icebreakers
WPB
Patrol Boat
Natl Security Cutter with
H-65 Helo
WLB Buoy Tender
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Flag Outreach: Mar – Oct
SONS Oil Spill TTX: June
Mass Rescue (MRO) TTX
WLB Towex/VOSS: Jul
WPB L/E & Educ Ops: Jul
Icebreaker Ops: Jul – Sep
R&D Center Ops: Sep
NSC Ops: Sep
Aviation Ops: Jul & Sep
VIP Visits: Aug
Community Svc: Feb –Aug
Tribal Issues:
• CG effort to reduce
subsistence impacts
• CG effort to communicate
with tribes during season
16
U.S. Coast Guard
Respect for Subsistence
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Marine Mammal & Caribou Tracking
Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission
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Carcass Survey
Response to issues & complaints
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Penthrite (Not in 2013)
Bowhead Whale Hunt Avoidance
Eskimo Walrus Commission
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Satellite
Tracking Sites
Caribou & Helicopters in Arctic operations
Tracking info from:
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Tribes
NSB-DWM
City of Nome
NW Arctic Borough
State of Alaska
Federal Agencies
17
Whaling:
Inupiat/Yupik
Cultures
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Harvest Quotas
 Bowhead Science
 Whaling Captains:
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Umialik = Leader/Chief
Whaling Crews
Who Gets the Whale?
Distribution of Meat
Generosity/Community
Food/Survival
18
Overall Bowhead/Cutter Op Issues
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Do not operate in sensitive or migration/hunt
areas unless SAR or other special
operation/necessity:
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Identified in EA, Oporder, and Wildlife
Management maps.
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Specific permission is needed to operate in
Bowhead quiet zones or other critical areas.
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Verify changing marine mammal locations
and issues with local Wildlife Management
representatives from North Slope Borough
and Tribes.
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Walrus Issues:
Aviation & Cutters
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May - Sept: Mothers with Calves
 Haul-out Areas Along Coastline
 Point Lay/Icy Cape (Up to 10,000 walruses)
 Impact of Aircraft Ops:
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Low Visibility for Aircraft?
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If still pregnant: walrus will abort fetus
Calves can drown or be crushed
Fly inland
Walrus Ahead?
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No sudden flight/course changes
Increase distance
Maintain 1500 ft when possible
Everyone Onboard is Responsible
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21
Polar Bear Issues: Aviation
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Critical Resting Areas: Sea Ice & Barrier Islands
Circling/Hovering Causes Distress
Distressed Bears may become Weaker and
Drown
More bears onshore
Air Ops:
 See bears? Do
NOT approach
 Observe signs of
distress
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Polar Bear Issues:
On-Shore
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Polar Bears On-Shore resting / scavenging
 Polar Bears are faster than YOU
 Safety Guidelines:
 Always Use a Buddy System Away from Town
 Do NOT go Running Near Shore Berm
 NEVER Approach a Polar Bear
 Move Away or to a Vehicle if bear nearby
 Contact NSB-DWM to Report Sightings
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Critical Bird
Issues
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Threatened and endangered
bird species gather in pack
ice to overwinter and molt
 Birds cannot fly during
molting process
 Vessels can kill birds that
cannot fly
 Primary molting areas:
 Eastern Norton Sound
 Ledyard Bay
Over 80,000 Spectacled
Eiders in pack ice near St.
Lawrence Island
(Cape Lisburne to Point Lay)
24
Caribou Issues: Aviation
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Caribou calving and feeding areas
Noise/Disturbance Drives them from
their feeding areas
Caribou Mosquito Avoidance Herds
Low-Flying Aircraft can spark
stampedes
Caribou may crush young animals
Air Ops:
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Maintain 1500 ft When Possible
See Caribou? Increase Altitude and
Distance
Everyone is Responsible
25
General Subsistence Hunting Issues
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June – October is Primary Hunting Season
Alaska Natives Depend on Subsistence Foods
Do NOT Compete with Subsistence
Most land is owned by corporations and Tribes,
and not open for hunting without specific
permission
CG Operations Can Disrupt Alaska Native
Hunting of Caribou, Moose, Seals, and Walruses
Please Be Respectful of Subsistence
Hunting and Activities
26
Marine Mammal Reporting
If You See It – Please Report It!
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Dead whale? Seal? Walrus?
 Take photos/Record location
North of Pt. Hope:
 NSB Dept. of Wild. Management (Barrow)
• (907) 852-0350
South of Pt. Hope:
 UAF - Marine Advisory Program (Nome)
• (907) 443-2397
• [email protected]
2012: Unusual Mortality Event
CG Carcass Survey Support
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More Than Subsistence…
It’s a Cultural Existence
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Lives are connected to the land and sea
 Subsistence is what binds the culture
Fears:
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Increased Arctic activity will lead to spills
 Spills lead to lost food resources/no easy
“backup”
 Increased shipping = collisions, groundings, etc.
 Govt response capabilities appear inadequate
 Not enough CG infrastructure present
 “Western World” cultural impacts
 Erosion of traditional knowledge
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Cultural/Foundational Values
Alaska Native Values:
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Coast Guard Values:
 Honor
Show Respect to Others
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Integrity
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Each person has a special gift
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Ethical Conduct
Share What You Have
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Moral Behavior
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Giving makes you richer
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Loyalty
Know Who You Are
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Accountable to the Public Trust
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You are a reflection on your family
 Respect
Accept What Life Brings
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We Value our Diverse Workforce
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You cannot control many things
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Fairness
Have Patience
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Dignity
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Some things cannot be rushed
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Compassion
Live Carefully
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Individual Opportunity and Growth
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What you do will come back to you
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Teamwork
Take Care of Others
 Devotion to Duty
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You cannot live without them
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We are Professionals
Honor Your Elder
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Achievement of CG Goals
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They show you the way in life
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Responsible
Pray for Guidance
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Accept Accountability
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Many things are not known
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We Exist to Serve
See Connections
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We Serve With Pride
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All things are related
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Cultural Differences
(Differences in operating paradigms)
Alaska Native Worldview:
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Group Emphasis
Present and Past Orientation
Time: Always With Us
Age
Cooperation
Harmony with Nature
Giving - Sharing
Pragmatic
Mystical
Patience
Listening Skills learned first
Religion: A Way of Life
Should appear modest
Oral
Use of land
A Western Worldview:
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Individual Emphasis
Future Orientation
Time - Use Every Minute
Youth
Competition
Mastery of Nature
Owning – Saving
Theoretical
Skeptical
Assertiveness
Verbal Skills learned first
Religion: Segment of Life
Put best foot forward
Written
Ownership of land
*Note these are generalizations for training discussions
30
Helpful Hints
Chief, President,
Council Chair
Respect Elders
Engage when invited &
Relax with Discomfort
Listen &
Leave Gaps –
Silence is Okay!
Respect Traditional
Knowledge
Talking Speed –
Front Row Seats
Slow Down
Are For Elders
Teaching & Engaging
Are Important!
Acronyms
Include Food
Remember History is
a Long Time!
This is Hunting &
Gathering Season
Community Relations Issues
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Alaska Villages generally welcome us
We are CG representatives –ALL THE TIME
Non-verbal cues speak volumes.
Be respectful -- realize that we have little
understanding of their culture and the reason
they do particular things.
They have survived for thousands of years in
this environment – most of us can’t do that!
Don’t be afraid, just be good neighbors!
Please Be Role Models for the CG
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Alcohol Issues
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A lot of Alaska villages have to deal with
alcohol issues –
 Please support their efforts
Most villages are “Damp” or “Dry”
Alcohol Importation is Illegal
Alcohol is Not Allowed
Possession is Only Legal With a Permit in
Barrow and other villages
Do NOT Drink To/From TAD Trips
Please Be Part of the Solution
We Are Community Role Models
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Barrow/Ukpeagvik
“Where the Owls are Hunted”
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Barrow (725 Miles North of Anchorage)
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Average Temp: 40 degrees in Summer -- below freezing 324
days/year
Population: 4400
Inupiat Eskimo
Whaling/Subsistence Culture
Remote (4 restaurants)
Difficulty Factor x3 for just about everything!
Significant Issues:
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High Food cost (107% more than Anchorage)
Subsistence resources: summer hunting/gathering season
Water & Sewage treatment
34
Nome
Community Information
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Population: ~ 3500
Region occupied for thousands of years.
Multicultural community
“Hub” transportation for >19 regional coastal
communities
Gold seekers since the late 1800’s – a very
different culture from most Arctic villages.
40% of population is Non-Native
Arctic science projects / opportunities
35
Kotzebue
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Kotzebue (549 M NW of Anchorage
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26 M N of Arctic Circle
Pop 3154 (741 students), 3 mile long spit
Inupiat Eskimo
Significant Issues:
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High electric costs (> $.50/kWh – 3x higher than Anch)
• Wind farm saves $120,000 in annual fuel costs (17 turbines)
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Subsistence resources: summer hunting/gathering season
Water
Sewage treatment
Fuel costs (Gas 177% higher/propane 193% higher)
Food cost (107% more than Anch)
36
Alaska Villages
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Point Hope (Tikeraq -- 330 M SW of Barrow)
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Koyuk (90 M NE of Nome)
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Pop 358 (102 students), habitation 6000-8000 yrs(nomadic)
Gold/coal mining support
Unalit/Malemiut Eskimo
Wales (111 M NW of Nome)
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Pop 713 (208 students), water from lake 6m/$.50 kWh elex
One of oldest continuous Inupiat areas in AK (2500 yrs)
Whaling/mammals/Tribe historically controlled area
Tikeraqmuit Inupiat Eskimos
Pop 148 (33 school students)
Whaling, reindeer station, influenza loss
Kinugmiut Eskimo
Selawik (90 M E of Kotz)
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Pop 849 (264 school students)
Inupiat Eskimo
37
Alaska Villages
(Continued)
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Shishmaref (126 M N of Nome)
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Kivalina (80 M NW of Kotz): Inupiat Eskimo
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Pop 410 (122 students), water from 3 M/30 gal/day limit
Stopover Arctic/Kotz travelers
Bowhead whales
Diomede (135 M NW of Nome)
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Pop 606 (180 students) 5 miles fm mainland, water hauling/honey buckets
Supply center for gold miners
Erosion; village relocation
Pop 117 (32 students), spring water (runs out March); honeybuckets
Whaling, polar bear hunting, seal/walrus
Inagalikmiut Eskimo
Shaktoolik (125 M E of Nome)
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Pop 231 (59 students); water 3 M/piped system
Subsistence, reindeer (old)
Malemiut Eskimo
38
General Village Info
Populations: ~ 100 – 5000 maximum
 Arctic has been occupied by Alaska Natives for
thousands of years.
 Arctic communities are different from each other – some
based on whaling, others on walrus, others on reindeer
herding or inland fishing and hunting, etc.
 Check village characteristics on State of Alaska website:

http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CF_CIS.htm

Check local Tribal/Community websites.
 If doing community projects, pick small projects or do
stages of a project so we can accomplish what we start!
The D17 Tribal Liaison is a resource for information
39
Things to Remember
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Cultural Responsiveness First and Foremost
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Tribes and community members have a wide
range of concerns – ask, don’t guess
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Community members can offer suggestions
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Remember history is a long time…
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On Duty 24/7: NO hidden times or places

Have fun and learn about their culture – they
usually like to share traditional knowledge
If in doubt, ASK!
40
Training
Feedback

Is this training useful?
 Is it engaging?
 Would you recommend it to others?
 Do you have recommended changes to
add/delete?

Please send feedback to D17 Tribal Liaison:
 [email protected]
Thanks!
41
U.S. Coast Guard
Points of Contact
17th District Commander:
Rear Admiral Tom Ostebo
17th District Chief of Staff:
Captain Jack Vogt
Coast Guard D17 Tribal Liaison:
Sudie Hargis
[email protected]
Office: 907-463-2034
Cell: 907-321-8300
42

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