Plasma Membrane sec 2 only

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Chapter 7
CELLULAR STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
Chapter 7 Vocabulary
Word, Definition, Sentence, Picture (Worth 136 pts)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
active transport
cell
cell theory
centriole
chloroplast
cilium
cytoplasm
cytoskeleton
diffusion
dynamic equilibrium
Endocytosis
endoplasmic reticulum
eukaryotic cell
exocytosis
facilitated diffusion
Flagellum
fluid mosaic model
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
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33.
34.
Golgi apparatus
hypertonic solution
hypotonic solution
isotonic solution
lysosome
mitochondrion
nucleolus
nucleus
organelle
osmosis
phospholipid bilayer
plasma membrane
prokaryotic cell
ribosome
selective permeability
transport protein
vacuole
9/13—9/17 Daily Warm Up
1. What is the basic type
of microscope used to
view cells and processes
such as mitosis and
meiosis?
 Compound Light
Microscope
2. List the two types of




cells. One type of cell
has two sub-groups,
name them as well.
Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
Animal
Plant
9/13-9/17 Daily Warm Up
1. What is a cell?

The basic structural and
functional unit of all
living organisms.
2. Hypothesize the
difference between
eukaryotic and
prokaryotic cells.
 Organelles separate the
2 from each other.
9/13-9/17 Daily Warm Up
1. What are the 3 theories
in the cell theory?
 1. All living
organisms are
composed of 1 or
more cells.
 2. Cells are the basic
unit of structure in
an organism.
 3. Cells can only arise
from pre-existing
cells.
2. If you were trying to
observe the water
vacuoles in a plant cell,
which microscope
would you use?
 Compound Light
9/13-9/17 Daily Warm Up
 Thursday no warm up
9/13-9/17 Daily Warm Up
1. What is the theory that
2. What are the names of
states that prokaryotic
cells further developed
eukaryotic cells?
 Endosymbiotic
theory
the two electron
microscopes? (Give
abbreviations)
 TEM-Transmission
Electron Microscope
 SEM-Scanning
Electron Microscope
Table of Contents
Week
Title on Assignment
6
1. 9/13-9/17 Daily Warm Up- 8 stamps
6
2. Chapter 7 Vocabulary- 136 points (153 if
colored)
6
3. Chapter 7 Section 1 Notes- 25
T of C- 9
Titles- 3
Points on Assignment-169
Total Points- 181
Page #
Chapter 7 Opening Activity
All cells
have a:
And are grouped
into two broad
categories:
Words you can use:
•Animals
•bacteria
•chloroplasts
•Eukaryotes
•a large central vacuole
•plants
•plasma membrane
•prokaryotes
Which
are
mainly:
Some contain
yeast and algae
Which contains
unique structures
such as:
Cell
walls
Section 1
CELL DISCOVERY & THEORY
Words you can use:
•Animals
•bacteria
•chloroplasts
•Eukaryotes
•a large central vacuole
•plants
•plasma membrane
•prokaryotes
Chapter 7 Opening Activity
All cells have a:
Plasma membrane
And are grouped into two
broad categories:
prokaryotes
eukaryotic
Which are
mainly:
bacteria
plants
animals
Some contain
yeast and algae
Which contains
unique structures
such as:
Cell
walls
chloroplasts
A large central
vacuole
History of the Cell Theory
 A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all
living things.
 The first to observe cells was Robert Hooke,
who made a simple microscope, and looked
at a piece of cork.

Cork= the dead cells of Oak bark
 Later, Anton van Leeuwenhoek advanced
Hooke’s findings and developed an even
better microscope called a light microscope.
Cork Cells
VanLeeuwenhoek’s Microscope
The Cell Theory
 Observations from Schleiden, Schwann & Virchow
summarized the theory of the cell.
 1. All living organisms are composed of 1 or
more cells.
 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure in an
organism.
 3. Cells can only arise from pre-existing cells.
Microscope Technology
 Microscope technology paved the way to the
development of the cell theory and the discovery of
cells.
 As we continue to grow in technology, so do
the details in the images we see of cells.

As detail increases, so do the magnification and
resolution on the microscope.
Microscopes
Compound Light
Microscope
 Glass lenses
 Uses visible light to
produce a magnified image
 Uses 2 lenses that can
magnify 10x, therefore the
total magnification would
be 100.
 Often dyes are used to see
an image
 Light limits the resolution
of these images
Electron Microscopes
 Transmission Electron




Magnet beams
Can magnify 500,000x
Specimen can be living
Sliced thin
 Scanning Electron




Produces a 3D image
Black & White image
Non-living
Stained w/heavy metals
Compound Light Microscope
Scanning Electron Microscope
Transmission Electron Microscope
Checkpoint
 Explain how the development and improvement of
microscopes changed the study of living organisms.
 With more sophisticated tools, scientists have been
able to learn much more detail about the cell and its
structures.
 Compare & Contrast a compound light microscope
and an electron microscope.
 Light microscopes use visible light and glass lenses.
Electron microscopes use beams of electrons and
magnets, and can be used to view whole specimens.
Basic Cell Types
 Cells differ based on the function they perform
for the organism.
 HOWEVER, all cells have at least one physical
trait in common: their plasma membrane.

The plasma membrane helps control what enters and leaves the cell.
 Cells have a variety of functions based on specific
organelles found inside.

Most cells have genetic material that provides instructions for
making substances that the cell needs. The genetic material is copied
to the daughter cells (offspring of the cell).
 There are two different types of cells:

Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic
Differences b/w the 2 types of cells
Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic
 Larger
 Smaller
 Contains membrane
 Does not contain
bound organelles
 Contains a nucleus
membrane bound
organelles
 No nucleus
Checkpoint
 Differentiate the plasma membrane and the
organelles.
 The plasma membrane helps control what goes in
and out of the cells. Organelles carry out specialized
functions in the cell.
Origin of Cell Diversity
 According to the endosymbiotic theory:
 Prokaryotic cells lived within eukaryotic cells.
 Which means cells came from a simple prokaryotic cell
composed of few organelle structures may have evolved further
from the multi-cellular eukaryotic cell to have its own identity.
At the end of NOTES…
 Answer questions 1-7 (you DO NOT have to write out
the question) on page 211.
 Make sure you create 4 questions on the left side of
your notes.
 Write a summary for your notes…at least 5 sentences
in length.
9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up
1. What is an example of a
2. What are the
prokaryotic cell?
 Bacteria
differences between
eukaryotic and
prokaryotic cells.
 Size
 Nucleus
 Organelles
9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up
1. Describe how the
2. Explain how the inside
plasma membrane
helps maintain
homeostasis in the cell.
 By controlling what
enters & leaves the
cell.
of a cell remains
separate from its
environment.
 The phospholipid bilayer provides a
barrier from the
environment
outside of the cell.
9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up
1. What do carbohydrates
2. (Without looking at the
do in reference to the
cell membrane?
 Recognize foreign
pathogens &
transmits chemical
signals.
book or notes) List 5
organelles found in
cells.
Nucleus
Ribosomes
E.R.
Golgi Apparatus
Mitochondria


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

9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up
1. Work on your story if you didn’t finish…
Chapter 7 Section 2
THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
NOTE: THE PLASMA
MEMBRANE IS THE SAME AS
THE CELL MEMBRANE!
Function of the Plasma Membrane
 The plasma membrane is responsible for
maintaining the organisms internal
environment through selective permeability.

This is called homeostasis.
Function of the Plasma Membrane
 The plasma membrane’s function is to allow waste
and other products to leave the cell and nutrients to
enter, & maintains the proper internal environment.
 Selective permeability is the property of the
plasma membrane that allows some
substances to pass through while keeping
others out.

Example: Think of a fish net.
Structure of the Plasma Membrane
 Most molecules in the plasma
membrane are lipids.

Lipids are large molecules
composed of glycerol and 3
fatty acids.
 A phospholipid forms
when a phosphate group
replaces a fatty acid.
 A phospholipid bilayer
contains two layers of
phospholipids arranged
tail to tail.

The arrangement is present so
that the plasma membrane can
exist in a watery environment.
Structure of the Plasma Membrane
The phospholipid bilayer
 The bilayer structure is critical for the
formation and function of the plasma
membrane.
Polar Head:
P
Phosphate Group
Attracted to H2O
Hydrophilic
Non-polar Tail:
Fatty acid chains
Repel H2O
Hydrophobic
The phospholipid bilayer
 The 2 layers make a sandwich with the fatty acid tails
forming the interior of the p.m. and the phospholipid
heads facing the watery environments found inside and
outside the cell.
 The phospholipids are arranged in such a way
that the polar heads can be closest to the water
molecules and the nonpolar tails can be farthest
away from water molecules.
 The plasma membrane can separate the
environment inside the cell from the
environment outside the cell.
Other components of the plasma membrane
 Major components:
 Cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates.
Proteins
 Found on the outer surface of the p.m. proteins
called receptors transmit signals to the inside of the
cell.
 Proteins on the inner surface anchor the p.m.
to the cells internal support structure, giving
it shape.
 Carrier proteins are located throughout the
cell to move substances and/or waste
materials.
Cholesterol
 Cholesterol helps to prevent the fatty-acid
tails of the phospholipid bilayer from sticking
together, which allows for fluidity.

Avoiding a high cholesterol diet is recommended because just
enough is needed for cellular function.

If you have too much your body’s cells have to compensate.
Carbohydrates
 Stick to proteins and help cells identify
chemical signals.

Example: carbs might help disease-fighting cells recognize and
attack a potential harmful cell.
Fluid Mosaic Model
 The phospholipids in the bilayer create a
“sea” in which other molecules can float.

Example: like floating apples in a barrel of water.
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 Cell Walls & Cell Membranes
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 Cell Membranes & Cell Walls
Check Point
 Identify the molecules in the plasma membrane that



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

provide basic membrane structure, cell identity, and
membrane fluidity.
Basic Membrane Structure: Phospholipids
Cell Identity: Proteins & Carbohydrates
Membrane Fluidity: Cholesterol
A __________ is the basic structure molecule making
up the plasma membrane.
Phospholipid
The ___________ is the component that surrounds all
cells.
Plasma Membrane
Check Point
 ___________ is the property that allows only





some substances in and out of the cell.
Selective Permeability
Hypothesize how a cell would be affected if it lost the
ability to be selective in its permeability.
Couldn’t maintain homeostasis & it would die.
What might happen to a cell if it no longer could
produce cholesterol?
It would become less fluid.
Chapter 7 Section 2 Notes
 Make sure you have the checkpoint questions in your




notes…they could be potential quiz & test questions.
Make sure you have 4 ?’s on the left hand side of
your Cornell Notes.
Write a summary—at least 5 sentences. The more the
merrier…you have a lot information in this section of
notes.
Work on Chapter 7 Section 2 Worksheet
Both are DUE TOMORROW!
Section 3
STRUCTURE & ORGANELLES
Eukaryotic: Animal Cell
Eukaryotic: Plant Cell
Prokaryotic Cell
Plasma Membrane
 Function: A flexible




boundary that controls
the movement of
substances in and out of
the cell.
Key word: Selective
permeability.
Cell Type: All cells
Analogy: __________
Gate
Nucleus
 Function: The nucleus
contains the cells DNA,
stores information used to
make proteins

For cell growth, function &
reproduction.
 Key Word: Control Center
 Cell Type: All Eukaryotic
Cells
 Analogy: ____________
 Headquarters (City Hall)
Golgi Apparatus
 Function: It’s a flattened




stack of membranes that
modifies, sorts &
packages proteins into
sacs.
Key Word: Packing &
Sorting
Cell Type: All Eukaryotic
Cells
Analogy:
____________
Post Office
Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Function: It contains




folded sacs &
interconnected channels
serves as a site for
protein & lipid synthesis.
Key Word: Conveyor Belt
Cell Type: All Eukaryotic
Cells
Analogy:
____________
Factory/Freeway
Chloroplasts
 Function: Capture light




energy & convert it into
chemical energy through
photosynthesis.
Key Word: Producer of
energy
Cell Type: Euk. Plant cell
Analogy:
____________
Power Plant (Recycling
center)
Mitochondria
 Function: It converts fuel




particles (mainly sugar)
into usable energy.
Key Word: Powerhouse
Cell Type: All Eukaryotic
Cells
Analogy:
____________
Energy Generator
(Nuclear Powerplant)
Lysosomes
 Function: Processes




enzymes that digest
excess or worn out
organelles or food
particles.
Key Word: Gets rid of
waste
Cell Type: Euk. Animal
Cells
Analogy:
____________
Disposal Service
Cell City:
 1. Hydraulic Dam (Mitochondria)
 2. Special Carts (Ribosomes)
 3. Town Hall (Nucleus)
 4. Small Shops (E.R.)
 5. Postal Office (G.A)
 6. Widget (Protein)
 7. Fence (Cell Membrane)
 8. Scrap yard (Lysosomes)
 9. Carpenter’s Union (Nucleolus)
Cell Analogy Story:
 Using the terms:
 Mitochondria, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi
apparatus, protein, cell membrane, and lysosomes.
 Create a story about a school (preferably OHHS).
 At a local high school called Oak Hills, the main
export and production product are students who
exemplify integrity & academic excellence…
 Identify what each organelle is within your story:
 Students=Protein
Table of Contents
Your Name
Week
Title on Assignment
7
1. 9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up- 6
7
2. Chapter 7 Section 1 Review Worksheet- 5
7
3. Chapter 7 Section 2 Notes- 25
7
4. Chapter 7 Section 2 Review Worksheet-20
7
5. Chapter 7 Section 3 Notes (Cellular
Organelles/Cell City Analogy) & Cell Story
Analogy-25
7
6. Chapter 7 Section 3 Review Worksheet-17
Page #
Table of Contents
Your Name
Week
Title on Assignment
7
1. 9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up- 6
7
2. Chapter 7 Section 1 Review Worksheet- 5
7
3. Chapter 7 Section 2 Notes- 25
7
4. Chapter 7 Section 2 Review Worksheet-20
7
5. Chapter 7 Section 3 Notes (Cellular
Organelles/Cell City Analogy) & Cell Story
Analogy-25
7
6. Chapter 7 Section 3 Review Worksheet-17
Page #
Check their table of contents, make sure all 6 assignments are in order in the
notebook. If they have week 7 for all assignments, the 7 assignments and pages
#’s for each assignment it is worth 18 pts.
Table of Contents
Your Name
Week
Title on Assignment
7
1. 9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up- 6
7
2. Chapter 7 Section 1 Review Worksheet- 5
7
3. Chapter 7 Section 2 Notes- 25
7
4. Chapter 7 Section 2 Review Worksheet-20
7
5. Chapter 7 Section 3 Notes (Cellular
Organelles/Cell City Analogy) & Cell Story
Analogy-25
7
6. Chapter 7 Section 3 Review Worksheet-17
Page #
Check to see if there are titles for all 6 assignments, if there is, 6pts possible.
Table of Contents
Your Name
Week
Title on Assignment
7
1. 9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up- 6
7
2. Chapter 7 Section 1 Review Worksheet- 5
7
3. Chapter 7 Section 2 Notes- 25
7
4. Chapter 7 Section 2 Review Worksheet-20
7
5. Chapter 7 Section 3 Notes (Cellular
Organelles/Cell City Analogy) & Cell Story
Analogy-25
7
6. Chapter 7 Section 3 Review Worksheet-17
Page #
Count the points they received on each assignment. There is a max of 98 pts.
Table of Contents
Your Name
Week
Title on Assignment
7
1. 9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up- 6
7
2. Chapter 7 Section 1 Review Worksheet- 5
7
3. Chapter 7 Section 2 Notes- 25
7
4. Chapter 7 Section 2 Review Worksheet-20
7
5. Chapter 7 Section 3 Notes (Cellular
Organelles/Cell City Analogy) & Cell Story
Analogy-25
7
6. Chapter 7 Section 3 Review Worksheet-17
Points Possible for this notebook were 122.
Page #
Week 8 Table of Contents
Week
Title on Assignment
8
1. 9/27-10/1 Daily Warm Up
8
2. The “Ultimate” Cell (Summary of
Organelles, Picture & Steps of Protein
Synthesis
8
3. Chapter 7 Section 4 Notes
Page #
Summary of Cell Structures (Organelles)
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Animals Cell
Eukaryotes
Plant Cell
Summary of Cell Structures (use page 192, 199)
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Animals Cell
Eukaryotes
Plant Cell
• With the following organelles: put the organelle if
it can be found in that specific cell. *Note: some cells
will have the same structures (organelles)
•Cell Wall, Centrioles, Chloroplast, Cilia,
Cytoskeleton, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Flagella,
Golgi Apparatus, Lysosome, Mitochondria, Nucleus,
Plasma Membrane, Ribosomes, Vacuole
•If all 3 cells have the organelle circle them red.
•If both Plant & Animal cells have that organelle
circle them blue.
Summary of Cell Structures
Prokaryotes
• Cell wall
• Centrioles
• Cilia
• Flagella
• Plasma Membrane
• Ribosomes
Eukaryotes
Animals Cell
Eukaryotes
Plant Cell
• Centrioles
• Cilia
• Cytoskeleton
• Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Flagella
• Golgi Apparatus
• Lysosome
• Mitochondria
• Nucleus
• Plasma Membrane
• Ribosomes
• Vacuole
• Cell Wall
• Chloroplast
• Cytoskeleton
• Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Flagella
• Golgi Apparatus
• Mitochondria
• Nucleus
• Plasma Membrane
• Ribosomes
• Vacuole
*Red: its found in all 3 cells
*Blue: comparing organelles in animal & plant cells.
The “Ultimate” Cell
 Using your Summary of Cell
Structures chart, draw the
“ultimate” cell.

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Include all the organelles:
Cell Wall
Centrioles
Chloroplasts
Cilia
Cytoskeleton
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Flagella
Golgi Apparatus
Lysosome
Mitochondria
Nucleus
Plasma Membrane
Ribosomes
Vacuole
 For the organelles circle






them as follows:
Animal—blue
Plant—green
Prokaryote—red
All cells must be
colored and labeled to
receive full credit!
This is an in-class
project…so you need
to be working!
Use pages 192, 199
9/27-10/1 Daily Warm-Up (Monday)
 What is the function of the




chloroplast and the
mitochondria? How do these
two organelles differ from
each other?
They both produce energy
Chloroplasts exist in plant
cells, whereas mitochondria
exist in both plant & animal
cells.
List some of the essential
processes the cell goes
through.
Organelles perform protein
synthesis, energy
transformation, digestion of
food, excretion of wastes, and
cell division.
 FYI on PowerSchool
 1.Go to




www.oakhillsbulldogs.com
2. Click on Power School
3. Under Log in: Their User
name is their ID number
4. Their password is their
birth date MD19xx (NO
leading 0's in the month or
day, so August 7, 1993 would
be 871993
5. They then click submit and
they should be in. If they have
any questions or problems
have them come by
counseling.
9/27-10/1 Daily Warm Up (Tuesday)
 Which organelle
 What two structures aid
(structure) is found in
both plant & animal cells
can be a site for
temporary storage?
 Vacuole
in the movement of cells
and help the cell feed?
 Cilia
 Flagella
Wednesday Warm Up
 What structure creates a
 What is found in the
protein? (Page 199)
 Ribosomes
cytoskeleton? (2 things)
Page 191
 Microfilaments
 Microtubules
Thursday Warm Up
 Based off the definition
 Based off this analogy
which organelle (listed
on page 199) is always
found in pairs?
 Centrioles
which organelle (listed
on page 199) resembles
bones?
 Cytoskeleton
Friday Warm Up
 Which organelles
 Which organelles
function is similar to a
conveyor belt?
 E.R.
function is similar to a
closet?
 Vacuole
Chapter 7 Section 3 QUIZ
1.
Cell Wall
2. Centrioles
3. Chloroplasts
4.
Cilia
5.
Cytoskeleton
6.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
7.
Flagella
8.
Golgi Apparatus
9.
Lysosome
10. Mitochondria
11. Nucleus
12. Plasma Membrane
13. Ribosomes
14. Vacuole
Protein Synthesis
 1. Begins in nucleus with the genetic information (DNA).
 2. DNA is copied & transferred to another genetic
molecule RNA.
 3. RNA & Ribosomes leave the nucleus through the pores
of the nuclear membrane.
 4. Together RNA & Ribosomes manufacture proteins.


Proteins made on the rough ER could become part of the plasma
membrane, released from the cell or be transported to other
organelles.
Proteins made on the smooth ER are sent to the Golgi Apparatus.
Peroxisome
 Site where toxic compounds are neutralized.
 pH neutralizer (keeps it a 7)
 Animal Cell
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Section 4
CELLULAR TRANSPORT
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
Diffusion & Osmosis
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
Dynamic Equilibrium
Diffusion
 Substances diffuse from
areas of high
concentration to low
concentration.
 No energy due to the fact
that the particles are
already moving.
Diffusion (Dynamic Equilibrium)
 Dynamic Equilibrium occurs when particles
continue to move randomly, but no further change
in concentration will occur.
 3 Main factors affect the rate of diffusion:



1. Concentration
2. Temperature
3. Pressure

As you increase these three things, so does the process of
diffusion.
Diffusion across the plasma membrane
 Water can diffuse across the plasma membrane, but
most other substances cannot.
 Facilitated diffusion.


This uses transport proteins to move other ions and small
molecules across the plasma membrane.
Channel proteins


Substances move into the cell through a water-filled transport
protein called a channel protein that opens and closes to allow the
substance to diffuse through the plasma membrane.
Carrier proteins

These proteins helps substances diffuse across the plasma
membrane
Osmosis: Diffusion of Water
 The diffusion of water
across a selectively
permeable membrane is
called osmosis.

Osmosis is important
because it maintains the
homeostasis of the cell.
How Osmosis Works
 Solution: contains solute and solvent.
 Solute: substance
 Solvent: liquid solution
 The concentration of a solution decreases when the
amount of solvent increases.
 Water molecules diffuse toward the side with the
greater solute concentration.
 The water continues to diffuse until dynamic
equilibrium takes place.
Cells in Isotonic Solutions
 A cell in an isotonic solution has the same
concentration of water and solutes—ions, sugars,
proteins—in its cytoplasm as the fluid around it.
 Iso- comes from the Greek word equal.
 Water enters & leaves the cell at the same rate.
Cells in Hypotonic Solutions
 A hypotonic solution has a lower concentration of
solute (more solvent, water) than the cell’s
cytoplasm.
 Hypo comes from the Greek word under.
 Water diffuses into the cell causing the membrane
of the cell to swell, which could possibly cause the
cell to burst.
Cells in Hypertonic Solutions
 Hypertonic solutions occur when the concentration
of the solute outside the cell is higher than the inside
(less water outside the cell).
 Hyper comes from the Greek word above.
 Water diffuses out of the cell and cells shrivel
because of the decreased pressure.
Active Transport
 Sometimes substances move from a region of lower
concentration to a region of high concentration
against the passive movement of high to low.
 Some active transport pumps move one type of
substances in one direction, while others move 2
substances in the same or opposite directions.
Transport of Large Particles
 Some substances that are too large to move through
the plasma membrane go through a different
process.
 Endocytosis:

Substances are taken into the cell
 Exocytosis:
 Substances are expelled or secreted out from the cell
Week 8 NB Check
 Table of Contents- 12 (1 point for what’s displayed
below)
 Titles on Assignments- 4
 Points on Assignment- No more than 122.
 Possible Points 138.
Week
Title on Assignment
8
1. 9/27-10/1 Daily Warm-Ups- 10
8
2. The “Ultimate” Cell- (3 Column Chart, Picture
& Steps of Protein Synthesis)- 70
8
3. Chapter 7 Section 4 Notes- 25
8
4. Chapter 7 Section 4 Review Worksheet- 17
Page #

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