Era of Good Feelings - Kenston Local Schools

Report
1815-1840
Chapter 8
 The War of 1812 significantly jumpstarted American
industry- after all- we didn’t have a choice. But peace
brought renewed competition from British
manufacturers.
 Henry Clay (and John C Calhoun) believed strongly
that the government should provide protection for the
American economy
 Proposed: A new National Bank (1st bank’s charter
expired 1811) a increased tariff, and the building of
roads and canals to help commerce (funded by tariffand that’s the part that didn’t go through, until civil
war internal improvements built by states or private
companies)
 Controversial b/c it raised strict vs. loose construction
issues again.
 Lack of a bank during the war had been a problem for US-
local banks issues their own paper currency, which
devalued and hurt war effort
 Went through in 1816 (even Jefferson supported)- with
another 20 year charter and 3.5x more capital than 1st bank.
 Controversial b/c it was a business as well as the
government’s financial agent. Could issue $$- regulating
the supply of paper currency in circulation to make sure it
was backed by Specie, pay gov’t debts, and collect taxes.
 Critics condemned b/c it was more accountable to it’s
investors than to the people
 Death knell of the Federalists- they ran their last
candidate (Rufus King) in 1816- cease to function as an
opposition party
 4 of 5 presidents had been from Virginia- governed 32
of 36 years of the republic
 Period from 1816-1824 known as “Era of Good Feelings”
b/c there is strong nationalism and Dem-Reps are the
only political game in town. But the title is deceptive,
as there were serious issues lurking under the surface
 Sectionalism (which includes issues with tariff, slavery,
internal improvements, sale of public lands, Indian
removal)
 Dislike of Bank
 Panic of 1819
 2 party system will return in the 1830s
 1st fiscal crisis since beginning of nation (have
had econ probs, but this is more about cash flow)
From this time forward we’ll have one about every
20 years until great depression- thanks Adam
Smith
 Caused by
 End of war created huge demand in Eng for US
cotton
 Land speculation (for cotton lands)- banks put out
too many risky loans- many of which end in
foreclosure
 Results of
 Rekindling political hostilities- est between West
(the farmers) who come to distrust National Bank
and East (the bankers) who think farmers are
greedy
 Gov’t steps in and make getting western land easier
(by the civil war they are giving it away!)
 John Marshall (hey, there is still one federalist out
there!) Chief Justice 1800-1835
 Significantly increased the power of the federal
government over the states – which is a big argument
at the time- and hammers it until the Dem Reps are on
board
 Checked the excesses of the popularly elected state
legislatures
 Put limits on democracy at a time when democracy is
growing significantly (age of Jackson) keeping it from
running wild.
 State of Maryland- which doesn’t like the National
Bank passed a law taxing the Baltimore branch- which
they hope will destroy it, and challenging its
constitutionality.
 Branch refuses to pay- so state sues manager- James
McCulloch for failure to pay taxes
 Supreme Court dismissed charges against McCulloch,
and goes to the heart- is the bank Constitutional.
Marshall says yes- and says the states cannot tax the
federal government (est. the supremacy of Fed over
State)
 Protection of property rights from states
 Dartmouth college (In New Hampshire) had a royal
charter issued in 1769. State wants to revoke charter
and make it a state institution.
 Ruling: the charter is a contract, and states cannot
violate it (unless it goes against the law).
 Significance: Safeguards private
businesses, but also allows
corporations to circumvent gov’t
control
 Regulation of Interstate Commerce
 NY issued a monopoly on Hudson river commerce
(Between NY and NJ) to a private company owned by
Ogden. Gibbons had congressional approval to
conduct business in same area- whose contract is
valid?
 Marshall says Congress overrules states- b/c of
supremacy and b/c it is “Interstate” commerce (which
is specifically mentioned in the Constitution
 New England and South have been arguing since the
revolution- but expansion of country and new econ
patterns have created an “us” and “them” mentality
between North and South which will define national
relations in the early 1800s
 There will be consistent arguments, which will grow
increasingly heated- and multiple compromises
 John Q Adams was Sec of State- ardent expansionist-
and negotiated treaties to expand American Territory
 Convention of 1818: settled border Canada along 49th
parallel. Also agreed to joint occupation of Oregon
territory for 10 years (renewed 1827)
 Adams- Onis Treaty: Got Florida for US, defined the
Southern boundary of the
Louisiana Purchase, and
Set Southern boundary of
Oregon territory
 As the country grew- the number of slaves was
growing too - even though importation of slaves was
outlawed in 1808.
 Tobacco had exhausted a lot of eastern land- and in
hard times people tend to pick up and to a new area
(“Go West Young Man”) Indians are out of the way
 Still lots of territory out there suitable for cotton
farming, and that means people buying land and
settling will want to take slaves. Is that OK?
 One way to balance sectional tensions was to ensure that
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there was an equal number of slave and free states
1819 Missouri applied for addition to the Union as a slave
state- and Missouri is farther north than any other slave
area (on same latitude as IL and IN)
Northern states propose Tallmadge Amendment: saying no
more slaves brought to MO, and gradual emancipation of
those there- South goes NUTS
Henry Clay Compromise: Balance with Maine as a free
state, and no more slavery north of 36 30 line.
“Balance” becomes policy for 34 years (until K-N Act in
1854) Slavery becomes the dominant issue in American
domestic policy- and South begins to increase their
sectional nationalism
 When Napoleon was in power he conquered Spain.
that disruption - as well as the inspiration of the
American, French, and Haitian independence, led to a
wave of revolutions around Latin America between
1810-1822. This was good for US b/c it opened trade
with those areas (they had been subject to their own
navigation acts)
 Spain in no shape to reconquer- but there was concern
that other European nations might try to step in
 British were also trading with Latin America- and
suggested a joint declaration warning European
nations not to interfere with the newly liberated areas.
 What British really want is to pull US in with them- so we
are both bound by same restrictions etc… Sec of State John
Q Adams sees through that.
 President issues Monroe Doctrine:
 No more European colonization in New World
 We will stay out of wars of Europe (neutrality)
 Let new countries alone
 Important b/c it is another example of being our own boss
etc… also stays (sort of) with Isolationist policies set by
Washington- we are staying out of Europe, they should stay
away from Americas
 In the end, it works, not b/c anyone is scared of us (we
weren’t scary then) but b/c Europe is busy, and they decide
Americas are all played out anyway
 Dem – Reps were still the only “party”, but by this point
they are no longer unified: 5 Dem-Rep candidates run in
1824 reflecting both regional and philosophical differences
 John Q Adams: Sec of State, MA, New Eng manufacturing
 John C Calhoun: Sec of War, SC (drops out)
 William H Crawford: Sec of Treas, GA Plantation aristocracy
 Henry Clay: Speaker of the House, KY, Amer. System (west)
 Andrew Jackson: Sen from TN, War Hero, “Common Man”
 No shock- no one gets majority of electoral votes (though
Jackson gets plurality)- election goes to House of Reps
 Rules say you choose from top 3- and that is Jackson,
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Adams and Crawford. But candidate 4, Clay, is speaker, and
therefore in control of election….and he HATES Jackson
(who was is rival in the west)
So Clay uses his influence to make sure Adams becomes
president… and low and behold a few days later, Adams
announces Clay will be Sec of State.
Jackson and supporters FLIP- but in reality, there is no
evidence of any wrongdoing…. Clay was well qualified for
job, and Adams was ridiculously honest.
Casts shadow over Adams’ presidency- Jackson and
supporters spend every minute trying to take him down.
Will led to breakup of the Dem-Rep party
Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Abraham Lincoln
Franklin Roosevelt
George Washington
Theodore Roosevelt
Harry Truman
John Kennedy
Thomas Jefferson
Dwight Eisenhower
Woodrow Wilson
Ronald Reagan
Lyndon Johnson
James Polk
Andrew Jackson
James Monroe
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Bill Clinton
William McKinley
John Adams
George H.W. Bush
John Quincy Adams
James Madison
Grover Cleveland
Gerald Ford
Ulysses Grant
William Taft
Jimmy Carter
Calvin Coolidge
Richard Nixon
James Garfield
29. Zachary Taylor
30. Benjamin Harrison
31. Martin Van Buren
32. Chester Arthur
33. Rutherford Hayes
34. Herbert Hoover
35. John Tyler
36. George W. Bush
37. Millard Fillmore
38. Warren Harding
39. William Harrison
40. Franklin Pierce
41. Andrew Johnson
42. James Buchanan
 A shift in thinking is happening
in 1820s politicians are making
more and more effort to appeal
to masses (as opposed to elite) Banners, Badges,
Babykissing, parties and free drinks
 Change from Jefferson (gov’t FOR the people) to
Jackson (gov’t BY the people)
 Universal white manhood suffrage mean more people
have a voice- and when things go wrong (like panic of
1819) they are MAD and want solutions.
 2 party system will re-emerge: Democrats and Whigs
 Adams had a vision for
national greatness.
(Embraced Clay’s
American Systemwanted tariffs, internal
improvements, sound $$
policy) but accomplished
almost none of it.
 Too much his father’s
son….obnoxious and
disliked, round 2
 Some saw him as too elitist. (harkening back to
federalists)
 Others thought American system unconstitutional- or
sectionally biased
 But in reality- he didn’t work well with others, so good
ideas like a national university, astronomical
observatory and Naval Academy get shouted down
 Big issues of Adams’ presidency
 Tariff of 1816 already taxed textiles, in 1824 Henry Clay
proposed an increase from 23%- 37%, a popular move
in New Eng (which is already the only areas that likes
Adams) but very unpopular in South and West
 Jackson and supporters are looking at election of 1828and in a tricky political move- decide to support, and
even expand tariffs (propose 45%) so southern and
western voters will blame Adams for increased prices
 So the tariff passes, and as predicted, New Eng happy
(but they wouldn’t support Jackson anyway) West ok,
(some parts are helpful to them) and South is MADswings them fully into the Jackson camp.
 South is screaming about abuse of federal power and
states’ rights (get used to it, you’ll hear it a lot) John C
Calhoun writes “South Carolina Exposition” talking
about nullification (like VA and KY resolutions)
 One more reason for West to dislike Adams and
support Jackson. He tried to slow sales of public lands
(fearing speculation etc..) and he supported Native
American land claims.
 1825 tried to save Creek and Cherokee land claims in
Georgia. Governor went against him and took lots of
land anyway.
 Jackson and supporters plotted
ceaselessly from 1824-28. Martin
Van Buren in charge of campaignand creates a new party to do it
(old Dem-Rep of Jefferson dies)
with the first modern “political
machine”
 Democrats: Andrew Jackson, “Old
Hickory”- party of the Common
Man (Irony- he owns a huge
plantation and is filthy rich)
 National Republicans: Adams.
Refuses to “run”, which makes him
even easier to beat
 Jackson supporters have plenty to say- call
Adams cold, intellectual (as opposed to
active) and out of touch with ordinary
Americans
 Adams doesn’t go negative- but others do
(about Jackson) saying that his wife Rachel is
an adulteress b/c her divorce might not have
been finalized when she and Jackson
married. She died about a month after
election, and Jackson blamed her death on
his opponents
 Supported Universal White
Suffrage, and elections organized by national parties
 Wanted to reduce the role of the federal gov’t in
people’s lives, however (to the surprise of many
supporters) did NOT support state’s rights. Big veto
man (he used it 12 times- first six combined had used
it 10) his way or the highway
 Opponents called him “King Andrew I”
 Jackson is the 1st president from the West, and whom
did not grow up with an elite background (orphaned
young, no college education)
 Political views are complex and contradictory- don’t
really fit into any mold but “Jacksonian”.
 He’s rich, but doesn’t like rich people
 He loves democracy – but not for blacks
slaves
 He likes federal power- as long as he has it
- but hates other federal institutions
(the court, the bank etc..)
Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Abraham Lincoln
Franklin Roosevelt
George Washington
Theodore Roosevelt
Harry Truman
John Kennedy
Thomas Jefferson
Dwight Eisenhower
Woodrow Wilson
Ronald Reagan
Lyndon Johnson
James Polk
Andrew Jackson
James Monroe
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Bill Clinton
William McKinley
John Adams
George H.W. Bush
John Quincy Adams
James Madison
Grover Cleveland
Gerald Ford
Ulysses Grant
William Taft
Jimmy Carter
Calvin Coolidge
Richard Nixon
James Garfield
29. Zachary Taylor
30. Benjamin Harrison
31. Martin Van Buren
32. Chester Arthur
33. Rutherford Hayes
34. Herbert Hoover
35. John Tyler
36. George W. Bush
37. Millard Fillmore
38. Warren Harding
39. William Harrison
40. Franklin Pierce
41. Andrew Johnson
42. James Buchanan
 The idea of “party machine” is that politicians trade
votes for favors- and a big, plummy favor are gov’t jobs
and contracts.
 Spoils System- As soon as he becomes president
Jackson sets out to reward his friends, and get rid of
enemies. Packed gov’t jobs with party loyalists (up
until now bureaucratic posts had not been part of
party system)
 Patronage- he rotated a number of people through
jobs to make sure he got a chance to reward everyone
 Sometimes an issue that seems trivial
leads to bigger stuff
 Peggy Eaton was wife of Sec of War (John
Eaton) and she was snubbed for being a
woman of “loose virtue”- other cabinet
wifes/gov’t officials refused to be with
her or invite her to their homes esp. Mrs.
John C Calhoun (wife of VP)
 Jackson (remembering slanders on his
wife) stood up for Mrs. Eaton- and fell
out with VP Calhoun
 Jackson essentially stops meeting with his “official”
advisors, and relies more an more on another
“unofficial” group. Some are politicians, some business
owners, some newspapermen (Jackson 1st pres
interested in “spin”) some old friends.
 Made Congress mad- b/c they had no say in these
people, saw them as a threat to checks and balances.
But not actually unconstitutional- presidents are free
to consult with whomever they would like
 Southerners were annoyed with Jackson- he’s supposed to
be one of them, and they don’t feel he begins by acting in
their best interests.
 Plus- Tariff of abominations still in place- and south is
MAD 1832 Jackson offers to lower from 45-35%, not enough
for them
 Webster Hayne Debate: Sectional showdown between
West/South and North/East over land sales.
 Sen Robert Hayne (SC) rep. states’ rights. Said New Eng was
selfish and disloyal (1812) said nullification a valid option.
 Sen Daniel Webster (now from MA) insisted the states had no
right to nullify- New Eng had to go along in 1812…
 Result- each side thinks they win, further entrench arguments
 South Carolina calls a state convention which declared all
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the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void. Said SC would
secede if gov’t tried to make them pay
John C Calhoun (still VP) secretly drafted ordinance (based
on VA and KY resolutions) and argued that since states had
ratified the Constitution, they had the final say in laws.
By challenging the authority of the law- SC directly
challenged Jackson’s presidency- and he didn’t think it was
funny. Threatened SC with martial law (supported by
congress who thought SC off deep end)
Henry Clay comes through with a compromise which
would lower tariff over 8 years - back to 1816
Stepping stone to Civil War
 Virginia held a Jefferson Day (birthday) celebration-
and John C Calhoun devised a plan to try to trick
Jackson into a State’s Rights commitment
 Everyone was to go around the room and give a toast to
Jefferson, and Calhoun planned it so toast would get
more and more pro-south, he hoped Jackson would get
caught into making a public statement.
 Jackson heard about plan though- and refused to
toast- which illustrated split between
Calhoun/Jackson, and Jackson/southern aristocracy.
Calhoun finally resigned 1832 (went back to senate)
 Since 1790s native American tribes had
been treated as separate nations- but
treaties were routinely violated when
whites wanted land.
 Lots of pressure to move all natives west of Mississippi- but
a sticky situation were the “civilized” tribes (Cherokee,
Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole) But in 1828 GA
decides they all have to go (there is gold on Cherokee
land)- and Jackson agrees
 Indian Removal Act of 1830- created Reservations in OK
and KA guaranteeing land to tribes who would go
voluntary – but Cherokee refuse and take case to Supreme
Court….
 Cherokee offered their treaty in 1791 (signed by
Washington himself!) and evidence of assimilation
(written lang, a constitution, education system)
 Supreme court recognizes Cherokee as a “domestic
Dependent Nation” with some autonomy, but without
full sovereignty. Chief Justice Marshall did condemn
Jackson’s actions in his
opinion.
 Cherokees aren’t the only
ones who don’t want to
move. Sauk and Fox
tribes, led by Chief Black
Hawk, decide to fightbut get crushed (opens
western Michigan
territory)
 Ordered to merge with
Creeks- their long
standing enemy. They
refuse, and begin guerilla
attacks on US troops in
FL (and kill 1500). Most
of the tribe ends up
moved- but a good
chunk just hide in the
swamps
 Jackson eventually sends in federal troops to supervise
the relocation of Cherokee. 18,000 Native Americans
are forced to abandon their lands and march over 1000
miles.
 Over 4000 die of malnutrition, exposure and disease
along the way
 Similar problems for other tribes- 3500/15,000 Creeks,
and 25% of Choctaws
 Alexander Hamilton had created the National Bank to
create financial stability, which it did.
 Reduce bank failures
 Issued sound banknotes
 Made credit and currency available nationally
 Safe depository for gov’t funds, and kept it from being
another sectional issue
 But by the time it was re-chartered in 1816 it was
becoming associated with elitism, and Jacksonian
democrats came to symbolize econ tensions (Called it
the “moneyed monster”)
 President of the Bank was an aristocratic
Philadelphian, Nicholas Biddle (distrust of “eastern
elite”)
 After Panic of 1819, the bank required all state and
local banks to back paper with specie- hard currency
(you had to have enough gold in your vault to cover all
paper notes) Which made it harder for local banks to
make loans- esp large risky ones- which is esp common
out west with land speculation etc..
 Actually sound monetary regulation- but not popular
with Jackson’s voters
 Charter to be up in 1836- Henry Clay (the National
Republican candidate running against Jackson) put it
up in 1832 to cause an issue for Jackson….
 If he signs, he alienates western electorate
 If he vetoes, he alienates eastern business
 Jackson: “The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill
it”. Vetoes- saying he must, it’s unconstitutional
(Putting himself over supreme court) Galvanizes his
detractors into create true oppositions to Jacksonian
Democrats
 First time there is a 3rd party in an American election
 Opposed the secrecy of the Masonic Order- accused
them of prejudice b/c had to be “invited” to be a
member- and therefore they were against the
“common man”
 Wanted to infuse politics with the reforms common
during the early 18th century.
 Never really gets anywhere, but holds the first actual
nominating convention, which becomes the norm
 National Republicans dissolve-
and are replaced by the Whigs.
(Nat. Reps fell apart in 1834 after failing at Bank War)
 The Democrats support the “common man” theorythat those who work (producers) are better than those
who own
 Whigs are (sort of) the heirs to Hamilton’s federalistssupported by business elite, sought to reduce spoils
system, wanted national gov’t stronger than states, and
to create a strong business/econ climate
 Democrats thought gov’t should be very laissez faire
with econ- to allow the “little guys” to prosper (whigs
disagree)
 Kind of funny- b/c this is also Adam Smith’s thought
for big business capitalism etc..
 To make SURE bank died, even before charter ran out, in
1833 Jackson decided to remove all federal $$ from banks.
Actually just made no new deposits, and existing $$
drained away on expenses (GO TO PET BANKS)
 Without federal $$ Bank didn’t have enough currency to
effectively regulate
 Recognizing potential land speculation issues, Jackson
required all land purchases be made in gold/silver (Specie
Circular)- but there wasn’t enough, and that led to a
financial panic as Jackson was leaving office. (spec not only
problem, also crop failures and problems with British
banks)
 When Jackson stopped depositing funds in National
Bank, he put them in 23 specific state banks- those
that ran with ideas he agreed with .
 However, without regulation, state banks failed to curb
“wildcat” banks that sprang up and expanded the
paper $$ in circulation from $10 mi in 1833 to $149 in
1837, resulting in runaway inflation
 New president Van Buren is convinced part of econ
depression comes from federal funds being in private
banks- so decided to “divorce” gov’t/banks.
 Created an independent treasury system where funds
would be deposited in large banks, but could not be
used by those banks for loans etc… (which is kind of
the point of $$ in a bank)
 Condemned by the Whigs and repealed, the reenacted
by Polk
 John Marshall died in 1835- and Jackson appointed
Roger Taney (whom the senate had turned down for
the post of secretary of the treasury), Like Jackson,
Taney did not like to see business protected/privileged
above citizens- preferred state regulation to national
regulation
 Harvard had built a toll bridge (with a state charter) over
the Charles River in the 1780s- which made good $$ for the
college.
 But Boston had grown and was busy, and in 1828 state
legislature gave the Warren Bridge co a charter to build a
new bridge 300 yards upriver – saying traffic needed it. And
the trick is, once bridge is paid for- no more tolls (which
will kill other’s profits)
 The conflict is vested interests vs. rights of community.
 Court decides in favor of new bridge- saying it promoted
the general welfare. Beginning of end for monopolies in
transportation and public facilities
 Charismatic and Controversial- you loved him or
hated him.
 Positive Contributions:
 Strong leadership. Champion of the people. Est the
actual Democratic party
 Liabilities
 Spoils system, Killing bank was a bad econ move in the
short and long term, Indian Removal- blatant racism.
Break with Calhoun increase sectionalism
 Martin Van Buren Jackson’s “Heir Apparent”
 Whigs (not fully organized) enter 4 sectional
candidates, 2 matter: Daniel Webster (NH), and
William Henry Harrison (OH). Accused Jackson of
violating Constitution with spoils system and
increased executive power.
 Grouped together Whigs pulled 49% of the voteshowing that there were many people unhappy with
Jacksonian Democracy, but regionalism kept them
from getting the votes they needed
 Master political maneuverer, had created the idea of
“Political Machines” back in New York, and applied
them to national party- making Democrats very strong
 But the “Little Magician” was unable to stack up to
Jackson- in every way.
 Saddled with Panic of 1837 - which he did not create,
but he couldn’t fix
 Caroline Incident: Rebellion in Canada in 1837 created
ugly border disputes and threatened ANOTHER war
with Britain
Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Abraham Lincoln
Franklin Roosevelt
George Washington
Theodore Roosevelt
Harry Truman
John Kennedy
Thomas Jefferson
Dwight Eisenhower
Woodrow Wilson
Ronald Reagan
Lyndon Johnson
James Polk
Andrew Jackson
James Monroe
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Bill Clinton
William McKinley
John Adams
George H.W. Bush
John Quincy Adams
James Madison
Grover Cleveland
Gerald Ford
Ulysses Grant
William Taft
Jimmy Carter
Calvin Coolidge
Richard Nixon
James Garfield
29. Zachary Taylor
30. Benjamin Harrison
31. Martin Van Buren
32. Chester Arthur
33. Rutherford Hayes
34. Herbert Hoover
35. John Tyler
36. George W. Bush
37. Millard Fillmore
38. Warren Harding
39. William Harrison
40. Franklin Pierce
41. Andrew Johnson
42. James Buchanan
 Whigs smelled blood- and planned for
election of 1840. Threw their support
behind war hero William Henry Harrison- “Old
Tippicanoe” (prompting the first real presidential
slogan: “Tippicanoe and Tyler too”)
 Blamed Van Buren for everything possible, and called
him an elitist -stealing a lot of Jackson’s moves from
1828- most of which had been created by VanBuren
 Harrison wins- but dies after only a month in office
(Wear a Coat buddy!) John Tyler is first VP to assume
the office of President

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