Chapter 8 The Progressive Era 1890-1920

Report
CHAPTER 8
THE PROGRESSIVE
ERA
1890-1920
SECTION 1: THE
DRIVE FOR REFORM
TERMS AND PEOPLE
Progressivism – movement that responded to the pressures
of industrialization and urbanization by promoting reforms
Muckraker – writer who uncovers and exposes misconduct in
politics or business
Lincoln Steffens – editor of McClure’s magazine known for
uncovering social problems
Jacob Riis – photographer for the New York Evening Sun,
expose on “How the other Half Lives”
TERMS AND PEOPLE
Social Gospel – Walter Rauschenbusch taught Christianity
should be the basis of social reform
Settlement house – a community center that provided social
services to the urban poor
Jane Addams – leading figure in the settlement house
movement
Direct primary – election in which citizens themselves vote to
select nominees for upcoming elections
TERMS AND PEOPLE
Initiative – gave people the power to put a proposed new law
on the ballot
Referendum – allowed citizens to approve or reject laws
passed by the legislature
Recall – gave voters the power to remove public servants
from office
ORIGINS OF
PROGRESSIVISM
Who? All classes and walks of life that wanted to act for the
good of society
Common Beliefs: industrialization and urbanization created
troubling social and political problems.
What is the difference between the Progressives and the
Populists?
Target Problems: political reform (corrupt and ineffective),
big business, reduce economic gap
MUCKRAKERS REVEAL
THE NEED FOR REFORM
(a tool to clean manure and hay out of animals’ stables)
coined by Theodore Roosevelt
Muckrakers using their journalistic skills exposed many of
the social evils in late 19th century early 20th century society
MUCKRAKERS CONT.
Novelists Defend the Downtrodden and put a face on social
problems.
PROGRESSIVES
REFORM SOCIETY
The Social Gospel Guides reform efforts urged the end of
child labor, shorter work week, and limit the power of
corporations and trusts
Improve the lives of the urban poor
Protecting Children and Improving
Education
Improve industrial working
Conditions (Triangle Shirtwaist Factory)
REFORMING
GOVERNMENT
Reformers Improve City Government, however only after
tragedies such as the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, and
Galveston Texas hurricane
Progressives Reform Election Rules, to give the power back
to the people, not corrupt politicians, and business leaders
Progressive Governors Take Charge, and begin to reform
their own states. Limit Railroads, use of natural resources,
and hiring state workers
SECTION 2: WOMEN
MAKE PROGRESS
TERMS AND PEOPLE
Florence Kelly – believed women were hurt by unfair prices
they paid for goods to run their home
National Consumers League (NCL) – gave labels to “goods
produced under fair, safe, and healthy working conditions”
Today’s Fair Trade?
Temperance Movement – the practice of never
drinking alcohol
TERMS AND PEOPLE
Margaret Sanger – thought family life and women’s health
would improve if mothers had fewer children
Ida B. Wells – formed the National Association of Colored
Women (NACW) helped families strive for success and help
less fortunate
Carrie Chapman Catt – reenergized the
national suffrage movement and first
female school superintendent
TERMS AND PEOPLE
National American Woman Suffrage Association – fought for
women's right to vote
Alice Paul – social activists raised in a Quaker home earned a
PH.D and formed the first group of women to march with
Picket signs
Nineteenth Amendment – the right
to vote shall not be denied or
abridged on account of sex
Make a Suffrage Poster!!!
PROGRESSIVE WOMEN
EXPAND REFORMS
Working Women Face Hardships; difficult jobs, long hours,
and dangerous conditions. Expected to give wages to
husbands, fathers or brothers.
Reformers Champion Working Women's Rights laws were
passed and upheld to limit the number of hours women could
work which later backfired to wages
Women Work for Changes in Family Life; alcohol was a main
focus (men drinking liquor neglect their families, spent their
earnings, and abuse their wives)
WOMEN FIGHT FOR
THE RIGHT TO VOTE
Suffrage – the right to vote
Women's suffrage started state by state and led to many
leading women in history (Catt, Paul, Kelley)
SECTION 3: THE
STRUGGLE AGAINST
DISCRIMINATION
TERMS AND PEOPLE
Americanization – belief that assimilating immigrants into
American society will make them more loyal citizens
Niagara Movement – denounced the idea of gradual progress
for black Americans
NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People / free blacks from low-pay, free of ignorance,
politically free, socially free (pg. 231)
TERMS AND PEOPLE
Anti-Defamation League – to defend Jews and others against
physical and verbal attacks, false statements
Mutualistas – groups that made loans and provided legal
assistance to Mexican-Americans
OPENING WORK !!!
EXAMINE THE CHART ON
PAGE 242, PROGRESSIVE
ERA LEGISLATION AND
CONSTITUTIONAL
AMENDMENTS. WHAT
SIMILARITIES AND
DIFFERENCES DO YOU
SEE?
SECTION 5: WILSON’S
NEW FREEDOM
WILSON AND THE
DEMOCRATS PREVAIL
Woodrow Wilson – Democrat candidate launched a program
called New Freedom, first southern born president in more
than 60 years
New Freedom – placed strict government controls on
corporations
WILSON REGULATES
THE ECONOMY
Wilson attacked the “triple wall of privilege,” tariffs, banks,
and trusts
Sixteenth Amendment – gave congress the power to levy an
income tax
Federal Reserve Act (1913) – placed national
banks under the control of the Federal
Reserve Board, ensured no person, bank,
or region from having to much money
(interest rates)
WILSON STRENGTHENS
ANTITRUST REGULATION
Federal Trade Commission – monitor business practices that
might lead to monopolies
Clayton Antitrust Act – strengthened earlier antitrust laws by
spelling out activities businesses could not engage
Today the FTC looks at stock trades, examines published
ads, and regulates buying on the Internet
WORKERS’ RIGHTS
PROTECTED
Labor unions could not be acted as trusts under the Clayton
Antitrust Act
Adamson Act prevented nationwide railroad strike and
limited railroad employees’ work to eight hour day Why?
Ludlow Massacre:
PROGRESSIVISM LEAVES
A LASTING LEGACY
Voters have a greater influence; initiative, referendum, recall,
and the Nineteenth Amendment
Federal government grew to offer more protection to
Americans’ and gained more control over peoples’ lives
Antitrust laws and Federal Reserve Board watch over the
economy
Federal government also had greater control over natural
resources, i.e. dams, National Parks, resources

similar documents