History Lab A2 How did the leaders of the newly unified Germany view their place in the imperial competition for colonies? o Great Britain A1 Which nation controlled one-fifth of the world and a quarter of its population in the dawn of the 20th century? o They were ambitious and believed that Germany had a right to a greater empire, just as Great Britain, France, and Russia had. B1 What was the outcome of the rivalry between Russia and Japan for control over Manchuria and Korea? o Russia and Japan went to war. Russia was forced to return Manchuria to China and to respect Japan’s control over Korea. B2 How did the imperialism of the United States differ from German and Japanese imperialism? o U.S. actions were not driven primarily by a desire for land. Although the United States annexed Hawaii and seized the Philippines, American attention focused on U.S. business investments in Latin America. C1 How did Latin American peoples react to U.S. and European economic imperialism? o They were offended by the idea that they were not capable of managing their own nations. U.S. and European economic imperialism also aroused their spirit of nationalism. C2 How did nationalism lead to unrest in Asia? o Indian nationalism fueled a movement for self-rule—and later, independence—in the British Empire. Nationalist groups called for violent resistance to British rule in Burma and French rule in Vietnam. D1 Which nations were part of the Triple Alliance? o Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy D2 How did France, Russia, and Great Britain react to the formation of the Triple Alliance? o They formed the Triple Entente. E1 What challenges did the old empires of AustriaHungary, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire face? o Rising nationalism in these empires was causing unrest, and they were trying to avoid decline. E2 With a smaller overseas empire, how did Germany build its power? o Germany used its industries to build a strong military and its power in Europe instead. F1 Why did the Balkan Peninsula become the location for increasing tensions among the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman empires? o They all wanted control of the area. The Turks wanted to hold onto the region, while Russia and Austria-Hungary wanted it for themselves. F2 What ambitions did Serbia have in the Balkans? o Serbia was landlocked and wanted an outlet to the sea. In addition, it had visions of an even larger nation that included all Serbians in the Balkans. G1 What were the larger forces that turned the regional conflict of the murder of Archduke Frank Ferdinand into a world war? o nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and the alliance system G2 How did the alliance system of the 19th century change into the Central Powers and the Allies? o After war broke out, the nations of the Triple Entente (France, Russia, and Great Britain) became the allies. They were later joined by Italy and the United States. The nations of the Triple Alliance (Germany and Austria-Hungary), joined by the Ottoman Empire, became the Central Powers. H1 What happened to the Ottoman Empire after World War I? o It was broken up. Turkey overthrew its Ottoman ruler and became a republic. The rest of the Ottoman Empire was divided into Arab nations that were put under British and French control. H2 How did the Allies treat Germany after defeating it in World War I? o They took over all of Germany’s colonies in China, Africa, and the Pacific. They reduced its military to a size that made it almost powerless. They also forced Germany to admit that it had started the war and to pay $33 billion for war damages. I1 What did Benito Mussolini do after gaining control over Italy’s democratic government? o He abolished elections and banned all other political parties. He also ended all civil rights in Italy, including freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and trial by jury. By the late 1920s he had turned Italy into a police state. I2 How did Adolf Hitler appeal to many Germans who felt bitter and humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles? o Hitler promised to undo the war’s results, regain Germany’s lost territory and colonies, and restore Germany as a great military power. J1 Why did many Japanese turn against the West after World War I? o The West blocked Japan’s desire to be the greatest power in Asia. The suffering that resulted from the Great Depression also turned many Japanese against the West, further strengthening Japanese nationalism and militarism. J2 How did Great Britain and France react to the growing nationalism in their colonies in Africa? o They kept a tight hold on their colonies in Africa. They also tried to weaken African nationalism by giving more power to tribal leaders and increasing Africans’ role in colonial governments. K1 What did Manchuria, Ethiopia, and the Sudetenland have in common? o Each of those lands was conquered by aggressor nations (Japan, Italy, and Germany, respectively), but the former Allies were unwilling to risk another war to save those lands. K2 Which event finally forced Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany? o the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. L1 How did Hitler change the course of the war after the British air force prevented the Germans from being able to launch a land invasion of Britain? o Instead, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union. L2 What was the Holocaust? o The Holocaust was a genocide—the systematic murder of some 6 million Jews and others considered dangerous or inferior by the Nazis. M1 How did the Allies finally defeat Germany? o The Germans were unable to resist the Red Army advancing from the east, while Allied troops pushed westward from France. Soon after U.S. and Red Army troops met in central Germany, Germany surrendered. M2 How did the United States finally end the war against Japan? o U.S. planes dropped two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, destroying both cities and immediately killing more than 100,000 people. (Thousands more died later from the bombs’ radiation.) The horrible devastation of these attacks convinced Japan’s N1 Which agreement at the Yalta Conference did the Soviet leader Stalin later ignore? o He ignored his pledge that Eastern European nations freed from the Germans by the Red Army would have democratic governments. N2 What effect did World War II have on the independence movement in India? o The war strengthened the independence movement. India won its freedom from Great Britain and was partitioned into two nations—Muslim Pakistan and mostly Hindu India—in 1947. O1 How did France respond to independence movements in the Middle East and Southeast Asia? o France resisted independence, but had to grant independence after uprisings in Syria, Lebanon, and Indochina. O2 What did the United Nations do in Israel in 1948 that led to much of the tension that exists in the region today? o The United Nations created Israel as a Jewish homeland for the many Jewish survivors of the Holocaust who had migrated there during and after the war.