1450-1750

Report
Review
1450-1750 Major Developments
 European discovery of Americas creates a New Global
Economy which begins a process of globalization
 Atlantic Trade Network (Triangular Trade)
 Atlantic Slave Trade
 Major Biological Exchanges (Columbian Exchange)
 New Empires in Asia, Africa, Europe and Americas
 Gunpowder Empires
 Colonial administrations
 Coercive labor systems
 Slave Systems
 Rise of Europe
 Scientific Revolution
 Enlightenment
Major Civilizations 1450-1750
 The Americas: Aztec, Inca
 Africa: Kongo, Benin, Oyo, Dahomey, Ashanti,
Songhay
 East Asia: Ming, Qing, Tokugawa
 South Asia: Mughal
Continuities 1450-1750
 Existing trade routes continued to be important to
global exchange
 No sweeping global cultural changes during this era
 No systematic changes in gender relations
 Spread of world religions continued
 Ex. Christianity to the Americas
Global Processes 1450-1750
 Triangular Trade Network (including Atlantic Slave Trade)
 Exploration
 European Colonization of the Americas
 Columbian Exchange
1453
 Ottomans capture Constantinople
1488
 Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope
1492
 Columbus sails the ocean blue.
1502
 African slaves begin to arrive in the Americas.
1517
 Martin Luther writes the 95 Theses
1521
 Cortez conquered the Aztecs.
1533
 Pizarro conquered the Incas.
1571
 Battle of Lepanto (naval defeat of the Ottomans)
1588
 British defeat the Spanish Armada
1600
 Battle of Sekigahara – beginning of Tokugawa
Shogunate
1618-1614
 Thirty Years War
1683
 Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna
 Glorious Revolution & English Bill of Rights
 Ottomans capture Constantinople
Ottomans capture Constantinople
 Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope
Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope
 Columbus sails the ocean blue.
Columbus sails the ocean blue.
 African slaves begin to arrive in the Americas.
African slaves begin to arrive in the Americas.
 Martin Luther writes the 95 Theses
Martin Luther writes the 95 Theses
 Cortez conquered the Aztecs.
Cortez conquered the Aztecs.
 Pizarro conquered the Incas.
Pizarro conquered the Incas.
 Battle of Lepanto (naval defeat of the Ottomans)
Battle of Lepanto
(naval defeat of the Ottomans)
 British defeat the Spanish Armada
British defeat the Spanish Armada
 Battle of Sekigahara – beginning of Tokugawa
Shogunate
Battle of Sekigahara – beginning of Tokugawa
Shogunate
 Thirty Years War
Thirty Years War
 Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna
Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna
 Glorious Revolution & English Bill of Rights
Glorious Revolution & English Bill of Rights
Review Questions
Women
1450 - 1750
 In most parts of the world, women continue to occupy a
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secondary status.
In most societies, marriage was primarily an economic
arrangement.
In a limited and gradual sense, some parts of Europe
began to develop a greater awareness of the injustice of the
position women held in society.
Aristocratic women and increasingly middle class
women had informal forms of influence over husbands
and sons, the education of children, running households
and businesses and managing finances.
A handful of monarchs were women.
Economic Trends 1450-1750
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Rise of a global trade network
Emergence of Europe as a world economic power
Decline in the power of nomadic groups
Inflation as a result of increase in gold and silver
New major trade network (Atlantic)
Increase in the importance of trade-based wealth vs. landbased wealth
 New labor systems
 Enslavement of Native American and Africans by Europeans
 European colonial economies in the Americas heavily
dependant on based on slave labor
Demographic Trends 1450-1750
 Migration of Europeans to the Americas
 Forced migration of Africans to the Americas
 Overall global population increase
 Largest increases in population were in Europe and Asia
Environmental Trends 1450 – 1750
 Transfer of plants, animals and diseases via the
Columbian Exchange
 Increase agricultural development
Cultural and Intellectual Developments
1450 - 1750
 European Renaissance
 Protestant Reformation
 European Enlightenment
 Increase in the influence of Neo-Confucianism in
China
 New art forms in the Mughal Empire in India
Land-based Powers 1450 -1750
 Ottoman Empire
 Safavid Empire (Persia/Present-day Iran)
 Mughal Empire (India)
 Ming and Qing China
 Tokugawa Japan
 Songhay (Songhai) Empire (western Africa)
 Benin
Sea-based Powers 1450 – 1750
 Portugal
 Spain
 France
 England
Reasons for Rise in European Population
 Introduction of potatoes and corn from the “New
World”
 European agricultural revolution
Rise of Europe
1450 - 1750
 Before 1400s – Europe is behind
 1500s – 1600s – Europe is about even
 1700s – Europe is beginning to pass other parts of the
world in terms of wealth and technology
 1800s – Europe is becoming a dominant economic and
military world power and there is an increase in
European imperial activity
Political Developments in Europe
1450 - 1750
 1st World Wars (ex. 7 Years War)
 Rise of Nation-States
 New forms of monarchy
 Absolute Monarchies
 Parliamentary Governments
Divine right
 Monarch get their right to rule from God; therefore,
this right cannot be taken away
Nation-state
 Solid political units with relatively fixed borders, a
sense of national unity and mostly homogeneous
populations ethnically and linguistically
Social Developments in Europe
1450 - 1750
 Social diversification as a result of the growing
importance of nonagricultural occupations
(ex. Banking, commerce, trade, shop keeping, artisanry,
craftsmanship)
 Rise of middle class (bourgeoisie)
 Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
 Qing Dynasty (1644-
 Japan was disunified
 Governed by military shoguns
 Feudal wars
 Independent states ruled by landed aristocracy
(daiymo)
 Tokugawa Ieyasu
 Tokugawa Shogunate ruled from 1603-1868.
 Ottoman
 Safavid
 Mughal
 Ottoman – N. Africa, SE Europe, SW Asia
 Safavid – Present day Iran
 Mughal – northern India
 Central Asia
 The Sultan
 Sultans did not marry
 The heir was not necessarily the oldest son
 Istanbul
 Suleiman the Magnificent
 (aka Suleiman the Lawgiver)
 janissaries
 elite social network made up mostly of the sultan’s
relatives
 Sinan
 The Shah
 Persian Culture
 Religion – Shiite Muslim
 Persian Rugs
 Mongol warlord – Babur (aka the Tiger) in 1520
 textiles
 The Taj Mahal

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