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Marcus to the Rescue
FAR
PROPE
1. Auxiliary
Latin Word
__________________
Meaning of the English Word
__________________________
2. Frigid
__________________
__________________________
3. Error
__________________
__________________________
4. Timorous
__________________
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5. Erratic
__________________
__________________________
6. Propinquity __________________
__________________________
7. Erroneous
__________________
__________________________
8. Temerity
__________________
__________________________
SALVAE
FRIGIDUS
REPELLIT
PETIT
VULT
 1. The students signed a _________________ to get a
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vending machine at school.
2. To gain _____________, the man went on a crusade.
3. Bug spray is used to _______________ mosquitoes.
4. He joined the army of his own __________________.
5. The air in the North Pole was ___________________.
Cornelia et Flavia in horto saepe ambulant.
Si dies est calidus, ex horto in silvam ambulant
quod ibi est rivus frigidus.
In eadem silva pueri quoque saepe errant.
Hodie, quod dies est calidus, puellae sub arbore
prope rivum sedent.
Dum ibi sedent, Flavia, “Cur Marcus arbores
ascedere non vult?
Estne puer ignavus?
NO!
“Minime!” respondet Cornelia.
“Cur tu Marcum non amas?
Marcus neque ignavus neque temerarius est.”
Tum Flavia, “Sed Marcus est semper sollicitus.
Sextum nihil terret.”
Subito lupum conspiciunt qui ad rivum furtim
descendit
Perterritae sunt puellae.
Help!
Help!
Statim clamant, “Marce! Sexte! Ferte auxilium!
Ferte auxilium!
Pueri, ubi clamorem audiunt, statim ad puellas
currunt.
Lupus eos iam conspicit.
Tum Sextus, quod lupus eum terret, arborem
petit et statim ascendit.
Sed Marcus ramum arripit et lupum repellit.
Puellae e silva currunt et ad villam salvae
adveniunt.
Brevi tempore, ubi Marcus advenit, eum laete
excipiunt.
Sextus, puer ignavus, adhuc sedet in arbore
perterritus.
Ex arbore descedere timet.
Cornelia et Flavia in horto saepe ambulant. Si dies est calidus, ex horto in
silvam ambulant quod ibi est rivus frigidus. In eadem silva pueri quoque
saepe errant.
Hodie, quod dies est calidus, puellae sub arbore prope rivum sedent. Dum ibi
sedent, Flavia, “Cur Marcus arbores ascendere non vult? Estne puer ignavus?”
“Minime!” respondet Cornelia. “Cut tu Marcum non amas? Marcus neque
ignavus neque temerarius est.”
Tum Flavia, “Sed Marcus est semper sollicitus. Sextum nihil terret.”
Subito lupum conspiciunt qui ad rivum furtim descendit. Perterritae sunt
puellae. Statim slamant, “Marce! Sexte! Ferte auxilium! Ferte auxilium!”
Pueri, ubi clamorem audiunt, statim ad puellas currunt. Lupus eos iam
conspicit. Tum Sextus, quod lupus eum terret, arborem petit et statim
ascendit. Sed Marcus ramum arripit et lupum repellit. Puellae e silva currunt
et ad villam salvae adveniunt. Brevi tempore, ubi Marcus advenit, eum laetae
excipiunt. Sextus, puer ignavus, adhuc sedet in arbore perterritus. Ex arbore
descendere timet.
 1. Ubi puellae hodie sedent?
 2. Cur puellae perterritae sunt?
 3. Quid faciunt pueri ubi clamorem audiunt?
 4. Quem lupus terret?
Quem…? Whom…?
 5. Quid facit Marcus?
 6. Qualis puer est Sextus?
 7. Cur Sextus ex arbore non descendit?
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 _____1. Cornelia et Flavia numquam in horto ambulant.
 _____2. Si dies est calidus, puellae ambulant quo est rivus
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frigidus.
_____3. Pueri saepe in silvam eadem ambulant.
_____4. Flavia arborem ascendit.
_____5. Marcus arborem non ascendit.
_____6.Pueri et puellae lupum conspicit.
_____7. Lupus eos conspicit.
_____8. Sextus ad lupum currit, quod lupus eum non terret.
_____9. Marcus ramum arripit et lupum repellit.
_____10.Sextus ex arbore descendere timet.
 1. Hodie Sextus __________ascendit. (arbor/arborem)
 2. Sextus __________ conspicit. (Marcus/Marcum)
 3. Nihil __________ terret. (Sextum/Sextus)
 4. __________ puellae conspiciunt. (Lupus/Lupum)
 5. Pueri __________ audiunt. (clamorem/clamor)
 6. __________ lupus terret. (Sextus/Sextum)
 7. Puellae __________ laetae excipiunt. (Marcus/Marcum)
 8. Hodie __________ pueri non vexant. (Davus/Davum)
After this story, you have seen how the meanings of some verbs may
be completed by forms called INFINITIVES. Sextus vult is not
a complete thought because we do not know what Sextus wants.
 We can complete the thought:
Sextus arborem ascendere vult. Sextus wants to climb a/the tree.
The meaning of vult was completed with an infinitive ascendere, to climb,
which itself takes the direct object arborem.
 Another example:
Sextus descendere timet.
Sextus is afraid to come down.
 Infinitive=form of verb recognized by the letters –RE and is translate
to…
e.g. errare, to wander; ridere, to laugh; ascendere, to climb; dormire, to sleep
 Complementary Infinitive=infinitive used to complete the meaning
of the verb it goes with: vult, timet
Goes in front of the verb it completes
Verbs that end in T where there is NO
nominative singular subject in the sentence (i.e.
puer, Sextus, Cornelia, puella), supply
HE/SHE/IT as your subject
Verbs that end in NT and there is NO
nominative singular subject in the sentence (i.e.
pueri, Marcus et Flavia, puellae), supply THEY
as your subject.
If the verb ends in a vowel and RE, it is an
INFINITIVE.
Infinitives are translated with the word to + the
meaning of the verb
 1. Ego ad hortum curro quod Davum vexare volo.
 2. Ego arborem non ascendo quod in rivum cadere nolo.
 3. Quod dies est calidus, tu prope rivum errare paras.
 4. Lupus ad villam furtim appropinquat; servus eum repellere
non potest.
 5. Sextus ex arbore descendere non vult quod lupus eum terret.
 6. Ego magnam arborem ascendere timeo.
 7. Lupus Sextum in arbore conspicere non potest.
 8. Marcus lupum conspicit, ramum arripit, lupum repellere
parat.
 9. Si dies est calidus, Marcus vult ambulare in silvam ubi
prope rivum frigidum sedere potest.
 10. In hortum exire nolo quod in villa laborare volo.
Latin Verb
Ending of Verb
English
Translation
1. ambulare
-are
To walk
2. sedet
-t
He/she/it sits
3. currunt
-nt
They run
4. gemunt
5. legere
6. laborat
7. errant
8. timere
9. clamat
10. respondere
11. petunt
12. arripit
13. repellunt
 Marcus et Sextus in silvam (ambulant, ambulat). Sextus
(clamat, clamant), “Ego arborem (ascendit, ascendere)
volo.” Sed Marcus arborem (descendere, ascendere) non
vult. Tum Sextus, “Tu es ignavus.” Statim Sextus arborem
(ascendit, ascendere). Lupus venit sed Sextum (terret,
terrere) non potest, quod puer est in arbore. Marcus non
est perterritus et lupum (repellere, repellit). Sextus
(descendit, descendere) non vult quod est ignavus.
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1. Singular Verb (line 1)
2. Accusative Singular (line 1)
3. Nominative Plural (line 2)
4. Nominative Singular (line 2)
5. Noun, Adjective Pair (line 4)
6. Prepositional Phrase (line 4)
7. Linking verb (lines 6-7)
8. Transitive verb (line 9)
9. Imperative (line 10)
10. Accusative Plural (line 11)
11. Accusative Singular, 3rd Decl. (line 12)
12. Accusative Singular, 2nd Decl. (line 13)
13. Plural Verb (line 13)
14. Nominative Plural Adjective (line 14)
15. Infinitive (line 15)

1. Marcus non est _______________________. (cowardly)
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2. Sextus est _______________________. (rash)
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3. _______________________ Cornelia _______________________ Flavia est in villa. (Neither…nor)
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4. Puellae _______________________ rivum sedent. (near)
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5. _______________________ est _______________________. (The day…warm)
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6. Sed _______________________ est _______________________. (the stream…cool)
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7. Puellae _______________________ _______________________ currunt. (into the woods)
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8. Dum puellae _______________________, _______________________ ad rivum descendit.
(wander, a wolf)
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9. Lupus paellas terrere _______________________ _______________________. (does not want)
 10. Sed puellae sunt _______________________. (frightened)
 11. Puellae clamant, “______________________________________________!”
(“Help!”)
 12. Sextus et Marcus _______________________ puellas currunt. (toward)
 13. Puellae _______________________ vident. (them)
 14. Marcus ramum _______________________. (grabs hold of)
 15. Marcus lupum repellere _______________________
_______________________. (is not afraid)
 16. Statim Marcus lupum _______________________. (drives off)
 17. Puellae currunt et ad villam _______________________. (reach)
 18. Cornelius et Aurelia eas _______________________. (welcome)
 1. Sextus is an energetic boy who always wants to climb trees.
 2. When a wolf approaches, Sextus immediately runs into the woods and looks for a
tree.
 3. He is not able to climb the tree.
 4. (He)** grabs hold of a branch and drives off the wolf.
 5. At last he runs from the woods and arrives safe(ly) at the farmhouse.
 Eris, the goddess of Discord, was angry that she had
not been invited to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis
and so she threw among the guests a golden apple
inscribed with the words 'For the Fairest'.
 Three goddesses - Hera, the wife of Zeus, Athena, his
daughter, and Aphrodite, the goddess of love - immediately
claimed the prize. Zeus, wary of making the decision
himself, sent the three contenders to Paris, a prince of Troy,
temporarily acting as a shepherd.
 Paris is shown on the vase
seated at the far right playing a
lyre, with one of his sheep
beside him. The three
goddesses approach him. Hera
leads, holding the sceptre that
indicates her regal rank and
proferring the apple to Paris so
that he can award it to the
winner. Athena comes next,
holding a spear and wearing her
snake-fringed aegis. Aphrodite
comes last, her charms carefully
concealed, ready to be revealed
at just the right moment.
 According to tradition each goddess offered Paris a bribe:
Hera offered wide empire, Athena military glory and
Aphrodite the most beautiful woman in the world.
Aphrodite's offer proved irresistible to Paris, who awarded
the apple to her.
 Romans were proud of their mythological heritage
 Origins traced to the great Trojan hero, Aeneas, son of
the goddess Venus and the mortal Anchises
 Beginnings of the Trojan War
 Paris, son of King Priam of Troy, kidnapped
Helen, Queen of Sparta, from her home and
brought her to Troy
 Menelaus, husband of Helen, asked his
brother, Agamemnon for help
 High Kind of Greeks and King of Mycenae
 Army from all of Greece assembled
 Homeric Heroes-story told by Greek poet Homer
in the Iliad and Odyssey
 Ulysses and Achilles
 Trojan heroes
 Sons of Priam
 Hector (commander of the Trojan army)
 Paris
 Aeneas (Dardanian, north of the city) (reputable)
 Brought his own contingent of Dardanian troops to help and
moved men and family into Troy early in the war
 10th Year of the war
 Achilles and Hector already dead
 Greeks used the Trojan horse and
infiltrated the city
 Wooden horse filled with soldiers and
given on the pretext that it was a gift for
the goddess Minerva whom they had
offended
 Trojans surprised
 Aeneas was told by the gods that Troy
was destined to fall and that he would
leave Troy and found a new city where
a new nation could be discovered by
Trojan stock
 Left with his family, Anchises-father,
Ascansius-son, Lares (household
gods)(Creusa, wife, left behind)
 Aeneas and twenty shiploads of
companions escaped Troy
 Aeneas wandered the Mediterranean
for years
 Tried to settle in Thrace, Crete, and
at Carthage with Dido (an exiled
Phoenician queen
 Arrived in Italy
 Lavinium-named after Lavinia,
daughter of King Latinus, ruler of
Latium
 Aeneas married Lavinia, name of
Latins shared with both groups
 Story of Aeneas told by the Roman
poet Publius Vergilius Maro in the
epic poem the Aeneid
 Of war and a man I sing, who first from Troy’s
shores, an exile by the decree of fate, came to
Italy and Lavinium’s shores. Much was he
tossed on sea and land by the violence of the
gods, because of cruel Juno’s unforgetting
anger. Much, too, did he endure in war as he
sought to found a city and bring his gods to
Latium. From him are descended the Latin
people, the elders of Alba, and the walls of
lofty Rome.

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