St. Thomas More High School Drew Cordell, Math Mike Fricke, Science Kevin Gleeson, History Mike Greuel, Theology Mary Burke, Academic Dean www.tmore.org 2014 Catholic Educator’s Convention, Catholic Schools: Leading the Learning DISCIPLINARY LITERACY Doug Buehl—our mentor Author Literacy Consultant Past President WSRA History Teacher Reading Teacher DISCIPLINARY LITERACY What are the various texts that students are expected to read to access knowledge and understanding in your discipline? How are those texts organized in your “academic discourse”? How does the “discourse specific” material govern the thinking and types of questions asked? What are the comprehension processes that lead students to greater understanding in your discipline? How does our teaching in “discipline specific discourses” encompass rich and ongoing literacy instruction? DISCIPLINARY LITERACY Middle and high school teachers need to integrate literacy practices into the instruction of their disciplines. “ The idea is not that content-area teachers should become reading and writing teachers, but rather they should emphasize the reading and writing practices that are specific to their subjects, so students are encouraged to read and write like historians, scientists, mathematicians, and other subject-area experts.” (Pearson, 1996) Alliance for Excellent Education DISCIPLINARY LITERACY “Middle and high school teachers need help to understand how they can develop content knowledge at the same time that they improve student literacy; that in fact, effective teaching in their subject areas will be boosted by complementary literacy instruction related to the texts (and the other communication demands) characteristic of their subjects.” IRA with collaboration NCTE, NCTM, NSTA, and NCSS DISCIPLINARY LITERACY How do teachers mentor students as disciplinary readers, writers and thinkers? What are the literacy practices that underlie the thinking in the disciplines? I Do, You Watch I Do, You Help You Do, I Help You Do, I Watch DISCIPLINARY LITERACY Mike Greuel The Marquette University Theology Literacy for Theology Students 1. Moving at a manageable pace 2. Changing student perception about texts 3. Consistently/correctly using new vocabulary Here’s some activities that went OK True/False 2. Annotation Key 3. Reading Guides 1. 4. And a look into the future…using all 3 on the same text! True/False After we had done a lot of work with vocab orally Background knowledge • Key instructions • Read statement as is • Provide rationale (“I could be convinced either way”) • Ask for details/supporting statements True/False Then, read the text Identify where statements are supported/refuted Come to some sort of consensus Sweet things can happen “person” “Person” Multiple answers Annotation Key Longer texts, esp. arguments or defenses of an idea Categories What are we looking for? Fighting perception of “philosophical” or “theological” text Annotation Key Adapted from a Philosophy prof Gradually with freshmen Stated Purpose, Key Term/Defined All at once with seniors Annotation Key Beneficial in discussion Common language Targeted questions Productive disagreements can arise Key information for later review Encourage to couple with brief notes to self Reading Guides Makes longer texts more approachable Ask different types of questions Taxonomy of ?ing Can use with Annotation Key Same categories, information to look for Reading Guides Helps with discussions Quick reference to textual support Target vocab in a new context Noah and the Flood I’m trying this out in two weeks—jigsaw the intro with these three strategies! Then move on to a closer study of the body of the text (History, Science, and Theology sections) Suggestions? Help a new(er) guy out! DISCIPLINARY LITERACY Drew Cordell, Math Northern Illinois University DISCIPLINARY LITERACY Goals: 1. Provide an approach to meaningful teaching of vocabulary, emphasizing student engagement 2. Build vocabulary and improve mathematical reading comprehension and writing style 3. Encourage increased student independence when reading math texts and story problems Word Walls Students collaboratively define a vocab word in their own language We mix their definition with the formal definition All definitions go into notebook glossary Word wall grows and remains for entirety of chapter Word Walls Helps build vocabulary, which improves reading comprehension Emphasizes student engagement, collaboration and higher level thinking skills Helps improve understanding for ESL students Vocabulary Knowledge Glossary Traditional graphic organizer style glossary Inclusion of a “before/after” understanding scale Students self-assess their knowledge prior and post formal introduction Valuable formative assessment and organizational tool Vocabulary Knowledge Glossary Stages of understanding 1 – Never seen the word before 2 – Seen the word. Don’t know the definition. 3 – Know the word, but rely on contexts to define it 4 – Know the word and can use it comfortably DISCIPLINARY LITERACY Kevin Gleeson, History Marquette University Literacy for Social Sciences Goals: 1. Keep sight of the narrative and perspective rather than acquisition (memorization) of ‘facts’ 2. Emphasis on authentic sources (when available) to humanize authors and characters 3. Develop interpretive reasoning for interdisciplinary use Narrative- Unit Layout Chart (US) Helps sort through the mass of information Repetition- recognize reoccurring trends Visually presents movement and change Easy to facilitate discussion Categories -Points of Focus -Contributing Factors -Exs/People/Vocabulary -Source work Anticipation Guide (WH) Brings out PK Sparks conversation Presents “multiple- narrative” perspectives Versatile use Predict Support your position Direct connection to source work Interpretive ReasoningPresidential Exploration (Gov) Utilizes elements of interpretive reasoning that culminate in a historically literate student The Issue The Context The Analysis The Synthesis The Application Historical Events (Biographical narrative) Executive Branch(Professional Writing) Evidence (Independent Research) Drawing Conclusions (Effective Discernment) Interdisciplinary (Collegiate/Career Skill) Job Posting-Cover Letter- Resume- Letters of Recommendation DISCIPLINARY LITERACY Mike Fricke, Science 2 Strands of Science Literacy Fundamental Science Literacy Vocabulary Concepts Content Derived Science Literacy Relevancy to me. Applying their understanding of science to societal and world issues. Buehl, D. (2011). Developing readers in the academic disciplines (p. 57). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Inviting students into the conversation We need show students how to converse with in the context of science so that they able to read, write, and think through a scientific lens. In essence they need to become disciplinary insiders. Two activities that have had some success. Together they key in on the two strands of science literacy. 1. Textbook Activity Guide Fundamental Science Literacy 2. Source: Strategies to Enhance Literacy and Learning in Middle School Content Area Classrooms, by Judith L. Irvin, Douglas R. Buehl, Barbara J. Radcliffe Wide Reading Derived Science Literacy Source: Developing Readers in the Academic Disciplines, by Doug Buehl Inviting students into the conversation Addressing Fundamental Science Literacy Science texts rarely depend on language alone to explain science concepts, they are often reinforced by pictures, diagrams, drawings, models, figures, tables, and other graphic representations. Buehl, D. (2011). Developing readers in the academic disciplines (p. 56). Newark, DE: International Reading Association This is were a Textbook Activity Guide can help Uses a code key and guided questioning to help students work through the different elements of a scientific text, making it a useful tool for understanding, and feel less foreign to them. Source for this TAG Prentice Hall biology By: Miller, Kenneth R., Joseph S. Levine, and Inc. Hall, p.49-53. Textbook Activity Guide – Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Code Key: DP PP WR PR SK CC RP Read section and discuss with your partner Make predictions with your partner Write an individual response (reflection) Partner response Skim or read quickly, paying attention to the stated purpose Complete the included chart Review past terms with your partner 1. DP – Read the first paragraph under the section labeled Chemical Reactions. a. RP – review with you partner the key terms; chemical reaction, reactant, product, and write down a brief definition for each in the space below. b. SK – Discuss with you partner what would happen if the chemical reaction discussed in the next paragraph could not occur, write your answer in the space below. 2. DP – Read the first two paragraphs under the section labeled Energy Change. a. CC – Complete the follow two charts, label A, B, C accordingly. Label what type of chemical reaction is represented. 3. PP – Before you read the next paragraph on Activation Energy, predict from what you labeled in the above diagrams, what Activation Energy is, and why it is important. Inviting students into the conversation Addressing Derived Science Literacy This is were Wide Reading can help Wide reading can help make that connection between science learning and real life application. Considerations with wide reading Tends to be most successful when the teacher connects material to the students. An array of choices with different levels difficulty A topic that piques students interest, something personal that can grab their attention. Wide Reading Activity Topic Sports Drinks and Homeostasis Follow-up activity to the opening unit “What is Life” Focus on two important concept in biology Homeostasis Feedback Loops It includes two follow-up activities that help me gain insight into there ability to understand science concepts in society Here are two examples of articles for the students to choose. Follow-up activities Writing Assignments 1. Write a one page discussion about the scientific effects of sports drinks on homeostasis. 2. Write a one page reflection about a personal experience. 3. Take notes on each article to turn-in. DISCIPLINARY LITERACY Research Says: Which Strategy Works Best? “When it comes to delivering instruction that sticks, the question isn’t so much what to do, but when and why to do it.” 1. Knowledge that moves from short to long term memory starts with learners making personal meaning by relating new knowledge to own experience. 2. Most important….repeat, repeat, repeat; rehearsing new knowledge and practicing new skills reinforces neural brain pathways. 3. Distributed practice(sessions spread over time) and elaborative rehearsal (paraphasing and summarizing, making predictions, or generating questions) support long-term memory and accuracy.